By A. Harbi, S. Maouche, A. Ayadi, D. Benouar (auth.), Giuliano F. Panza, Ivanka Paskaleva, Concettina Nunziata (eds.)
The sped up, and infrequently out of control, development of the towns has contributed to the ecological transformation in their fast atmosphere. components contributing to the city vulnerability contain: decreasing or emerging of the water desk, subsidence, lack of bearing potential of soil foundations and instability of slopes. fresh catastrophic earthquakes spotlight the negative realizing through choice makers of seismic comparable chance, in addition to the tendency of a few developers to exploit the most cost effective designs and development fabrics to extend momentary monetary returns on their investment.
Losses from earthquakes will proceed to extend if we don't shift in the direction of proactive answer. catastrophe aid is either a subject matter for attention within the sustainable improvement time table and a cross-cutting factor on the subject of the social, fiscal, environmental and humanitarian sectors. As position is the most important issue, which determines the extent of probability linked to a chance, land-use plans and mapping can be used as instruments to spot the main compatible utilization for weak areas.
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Extra info for Seismic Ground Motion in Large Urban Areas
990 The hybrid technique developed by FaH et al. (1990, 1993, 1994) is used here to study the effect of the Nile graben sediments on the propagation of seismic waves. , 2000) and the finite-difference methods (VIRJEUX, 1984, 1986; LEVANDER, 1988). Each method is applied in that part of the structural model where it works most efficiently. , from the source position to the beginning of the local model of interest. The seismic source used in this study represents the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake (Fig.
1998). The local model considered in this study (Fig. 5c) is the profile (4-4') given by SAID (1981). This profile is located between Cairo and Faiyoum 22 km from the epicenter of the 1992 earthquake. , Educational Building Authority, EBA). These investigations were carried out by using shallow seismic techniques and drilling boreholes. We should emphasize that the velocities (VI' and V,) given by different authors are in general agreement with laboratory measurements made by EBA. Table 1 summarizes the parameters used in our calculation for each layer.
In the vertical component, the amplification is stronger and occurs for frequencies between Vol. 161,2004 24 The Nile Valley of Egypt 26 28 30 32 997 34 Epicentral distance (Km) 36 36 Figure 9 Synthetic strong motion records (vertical component) calculated for the original (bottom) and modified ( top) reference bedrock models. The main difference between the two sets of seismograms is encircled by the elongated ellipse. 5 Hz. The studies by AMBRASEYS and SIMPSON (1996) and AMBRASEYS and DOUGLAS (2000) support this observation.