By Rickie Solinger
During the last hundred years, inhabitants coverage has been a strong tactic for attaining nationwide ambitions. no matter if the focal point has been on expanding the start price to undertaking energy and advertise nation-building—as in Brazil within the Nineteen Sixties, the place the army govt insisted "powerful state intended a populous nation," — or on restricting inhabitants via birth control and sterilization as a method of combatting overpopulation, poverty, and diverse different social ills, states have continually used women's our bodies as a political source.
In Reproductive States, a gaggle of foreign scholars—specialists in inhabitants and reproductive politics of Japan, Germany, India, Egypt, Nigeria, China, Brazil, the Soviet Union/Russia, and the United States—explore the inhabitants politics, guidelines and practices followed in those international locations and supply reflections at the results of these regulations and their legacies. The essays during this quantity specialize in the context that influenced international locations to improve demographic imperatives concerning inhabitants measurement and "quality," and view how these imperatives turned distinctive units of priorities and methods. additionally they light up how those countries crafted their very own rules and practices, usually whereas responding to United countries- and united states- pushed inhabitants targets, strategies, and interventions.
The international standpoint of this quantity shines mild on nationwide specificities, together with swap over the years inside of a kingdom, whereas additionally shooting interconnections between numerous nationwide politics and discourses, together with evolving buildings of the foremost and intricate idea of "overpopulation."
The first quantity to survey inhabitants guidelines from key international locations on 5 continents and to interweave gender politics, reproductive rights, statecraft, and global structures, Reproductive States could be an important paintings for students of anthropology, girls and gender stories, feminist concept, and biopolitics.
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Additional info for Reproductive States: Global Perspectives on the Invention and Implementation of Population Policy
The combination is clear in Nazi policies toward birth control and extramarital sexual activity. 32 This fact is generally cited as a key indication of Nazi tendencies toward sexual repression and the control of women’s reproductive choices. 34 It is particularly significant that Himmler’s ban excluded condoms—a rather large loophole. Concerns about venereal disease and the view of many Nazi leaders (particularly Himmler) that male workers and soldiers required sexual outlets to be effective and productive persuaded them that condoms had to remain available to men seeking the services of prostitutes.
Bevölkerungspolitik in the Weimar Republic The experience of total war in World War I, the mass destruction and the loss of millions of young lives followed by a humiliating defeat, further fueled arguments that only healthy rates of reproduction could ensure the continued survival of the German nation and a rejuvenation of national strength (Volkskraft). 14 In this atmosphere, the new medical disciplines that focused on improving the health of entire populations gained particular prominence. 15 In summary, nationalist ambitions, concerns about military strength, and social Darwinian understandings of international relations combined with new medical paradigms and welfare strategies to produce an overwhelming consensus that the state had to play a role in influencing individual reproductive decisions.
In 1965, the World Health Organization began to include birth control in its official programs; NewYork Times, May 22, 1965, 33. 48. See, for example, “Population Council Report,” Studies in Family Planning 9 (1966): 1. 49. Briggs, Reproducing Empire, 108. S. : Cornell University Press, 2011), 108; Hartmann, Reproductive Rights and Wrongs, 111; Connelly,“Cold War,” 480. 51. Grant, The Selling of Contraception: The Dalkon Shield Case, Sexuality, and Women’s Autonomy (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1992), 31.