Download Regions, Institutions, and Agrarian Change in European by Rosemary Lynn Hopcroft PDF

By Rosemary Lynn Hopcroft

Examining how and why agricultural swap and improvement happened in Western Europe among the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries is the crucial activity of this designated comparative, historic research. It describes the standards that account for the transformation of a terrible, unproductive agricultural quarter to a quarter with a lot greater productiveness and burgeoning industrialization. international locations tested and in comparison are England, the Netherlands, France, the German lands, and Sweden.
What makes this quantity so compelling is the level to which many of the fields of historical past, economics, political technological know-how, and sociology are built-in and hired. Hopcroft demonstrates key consider agrarian improvement was once the agricultural financial association or "field system," which assorted domestically. She additionally demonstrates the application of the recent Institutional fiscal (NIE) method of old fiscal swap, exhibiting how box platforms should be conceptualized as a manufactured from neighborhood associations, that's, social ideas and norms of agricultural perform. extra, she makes use of the NIE to derive her speculation that the main swift and wide agrarian improvement happened within the areas that have been the least managed through the neighborhood and manorial overlordship.
Hopcroft's multidisciplinary method of her topic will curiosity readers from historical past, economics, political technological know-how, agriculture, and comparative historic sociology. it is going to, additionally, be vital to somebody looking to comprehend the "rise of the West."
Rosemary L. Hopcroft is Assistant Professor of Sociology, collage of North Carolina, Charlotte.

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Additional info for Regions, Institutions, and Agrarian Change in European History (Economics, Cognition, and Society)

Sample text

Similarly, the glebe lands-lands belonging to the church-usually occupied the same relative position in each furlong (Romans 1 94 1 ; Rowley 1 986, 1 0 1 ) . A person given land "toward the sun" had strips in the east or south of each furlong, while a person with land "toward the shade" had strips in the west or north of each furlong. This practice of sun division apparently had religious (or superstitious) significance (Romans 1 94 1 ; G6ransson 1 96 1 , 80- 1 0 1 ; Dodgshon 1 980) . 36 Regions, Institutions, and Agrarian Change The regularity suggests the second process by which the communal open field system may have been implemented-through a major rearrangement of land at a single point in time.

Demesne lands often were physically removed from peasant holdings . Furthermore, usually few or no labor services were required of tenants. In regions of less-communal open fields and enclosures in Eng­ land and parts of the northern Netherlands, much of the peasantry was free of any kind of feudal obligations, as there was a large proportion of freeholding peasants. Similarly, manorial control was relatively weak in much of the southern Netherlands, Sweden, southern France, and Nor­ mandy. In these regions manorial dues and services were traditionally light or nonexistent.

This happened early with the population growth of the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries in western Europe and perhaps as late as the six­ teenth century in northern Russia (Robinson 1 9 32; Blum 1 9 6 1 ) . Popula­ tion growth also stimulated nucleation of villages at this time. 7 Thus, both the three-course rotation and the nucleated village characteristic of communal open field systems are attrib­ uted to population growth. Thirsk ( 1 984) puts forward a variation on this argument that comple­ ments her ecological argument.

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