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By John Dixon

This booklet addresses the long-standing worldwide factor of poverty. An introductory bankruptcy explores innovations and definitions of poverty, the following chapters supplying particular examinations of poverty in ten various international locations: united kingdom, united states, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, eire, Malta, The Netherlands, The Philippines and Zimbabwe. each one bankruptcy follows a constant structure, to facilitate comparability and makes a speciality of the subsequent issues:- * the socio-economic and historic context in which poverty exists * the level and nature of poverty its explanations * the measures which were taken to mitigate it. This e-book could be crucial interpreting for college kids of social coverage and management in addition to improvement stories and anthropology.

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Finally, it was clear that there was also considerable variation between different types of farming and different farming areas. The Henderson Poverty Inquiry found that ‘of the 399,000 income units in Australia with incomes, before housing costs, less than the poverty line, 142,000 were living in rural areas’ (Australia, Commission of Inquiry into Poverty 1975: 187). After housing costs that proportion dropped markedly, reflecting the lower cost of housing in rural areas. The higher incidence of poverty is due in part to two characteristics – a marginally higher proportion of the aged and a higher incidence of unemployment in rural areas.

It has been adopted to enable comparison, to allow measurement at different places and different times, thus allowing comparisons to be made, and trends assessed. Poverty is the most serious social problem facing the international community. As we have seen, although the specific content of poverty definitions will vary between countries, the essential nature of poverty as a condition is universal. Poverty is about exclusion. It is a wide-ranging and complex phenomenon, The meaning and measurement of poverty 17 profoundly affecting individuals and households.

Modern history began in 1770 with the arrival of Captain Cook who claimed the country for England. In 1787 England began to send out prisoners (convicts) who, together with the military who guarded them, officials and earlier settlers, founded a network of colonies. In 1901 these colonies were federated into the Commonwealth of Australia, comprised of five states and two territories. Australia’s eighteen million people are concentrated in three coastal regions – the east, south-east and south-west seaboards, none of which extend more than 300 kilometres inland.

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