Download Natural Selection and Social Theory: Selected Papers of by Robert Trivers PDF

By Robert Trivers

Robert Trivers is a pioneering determine within the box of sociobiology. For ordinary choice and Social concept, he has chosen 11 of his so much influential papers, together with numerous vintage papers from the early Seventies at the evolution of reciprocal altruism, parent-offspring conflicts, and asymmetry in sexual choice, which helped to set up the centrality of sociobiology, in addition to a few of his later paintings on deceit in signalling, intercourse opposed genes, and imprinting. Trivers introduces every one paper, environment them of their modern context, and significantly comparing them within the mild of next paintings and additional advancements. the result's a distinct portrait of the highbrow improvement of sociobiology, with necessary insights for evolutionary biology, anthropology, and psychology.

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Extra info for Natural Selection and Social Theory: Selected Papers of Robert Trivers (Evolution and Cognition Series)

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Instead, the benefits of human altruism are to be seen as coming directly from reciprocity—not indirectly through nonaltruistic group benefits. , Rousseau, 1954; Baier, 1958). The Psychological System Underlying Human Reciprocal Altruism Anthropologists have recognized the importance of reciprocity in human behavior, but when they have ascribed functions to such behavior they have 38 NATURAL SELECTION AND SOCIAL THEORY done so in terms of group benefits, reciprocity cementing group relations and encouraging group survival.

This may happen if the altruist responds to the cheating by curtailing all future possible altruistic gestures to this individual. Assuming that the benefits of these lost altruistic acts outweigh the costs involved in reciprocating, the cheater will be selected against relative to individuals who, because neither cheats, exchange many altruistic acts. This argument can be made precise. Assume there are both altruists and nonaltruists in a population of size N and that the altruists are characterized by the fact that each performs altruistic acts when the cost to the altruist is well below the benefit to the recipient, where cost is defined as the degree to which the behavior retards the reproduction of the genes of the altruist and benefit is the degree to which the behavior increases the rate of reproduction of the genes of the recipient.

This will be facilitated by the site specificity of either individual. Of temperate water cleaners, the species most specialized to cleaning is also apparently the most solitary (Hobson, 1969). (4) Lifespan of cleaners. No good data exist on how long cleaners live, but several observations on both fish and shrimp suggest that they easily live long enough for effective selection against cheaters. Randall (1958) repeatedly checked several ledges and found that different feeding stations were occupied for “long periods of time,” apparently by the same individuals.

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