By International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF)
Microbiology of meals 6: Microbial Ecology of nutrients Commodities was once written via the ICMSF, compris ing 19 scientists from II international locations, plus 12 experts and 12 bankruptcy members. This ebook brings modern Microbial Ecology of meals. quantity 2: meals Commodities (1980, educational Press), taking account of advancements in foodstuff processing and packaging, new levels of goods, and foodbome pathogens that experience emerged on the grounds that 1980. the final constitution of every of the chapters has been retained, viz. they hide: (i) the $64000 homes of the meals commodity that impact its microbial content material; (ii) the preliminary microbial plant life at slaughter or harvest; (iii) the influence ofharvesting, transportation, processing and garage at the microbial content material; and (iv) the technique of controlling techniques and the microbial content material. The part on selection of Case has no longer been integrated during this 2d variation, reflecting the replaced emphasis in making sure the microbi ological defense of meals. on the time of booklet of Microbial Ecology of meals. quantity 2: nutrition Commodities, regulate of meals protection used to be mostly via inspection and compliance with hygiene laws, coupled with end-product checking out. Such checking out used to be wear a valid statistical foundation via sampling plans brought in Microorganisms in meals 2: Sampling for Microbiological research: rules and particular purposes (2nd variation 1986, college of Toronto Press). those sampling plans stay invaluable at port-of-entry, the place there's no details at the stipulations less than which a foodstuff has been produced or processed.
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Extra resources for Micro-Organisms in Foods: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities
1986. g. 026:HII, OI03:H2. OIII:NM. , 1989; Montenegro et al .. 1990: Wells el ili .. 1991). Campylobacter jejuni. After slaughter, C. jejuni have been found on from 19 to 70o/r of sheep carcasses, from 2 to 32% of adult cattle carcasses. and from 20 (0 97(1r of calf carcasses. Campylobacters (mostly C. co/i) have been found on 20-60% of pork carcasses. In a Canadian survey (Lammerding et al.. 1988). campylobacters were found on 12% of pork. 15 cIr of beef and 35% of beef neck samples taken from carcasses before chilling.
Cleaning and disinfection of intensive rearing premises should be carried out between batches of animals using an 'all-in, all-out' system of restocking. Insects, birds, rodents, cats and dogs should be excluded from intensive units, tools and equipment should be cleaned and disinfected, and special clothing and footwear should be used by animal attendants. g. Campy/obacter, Salmonella, Sarcocystis and Taenia saginata). Good-quality water should be used in intensive units and water troughs regularly cleaned.
Growth of yersinia, as of other Gram-negative bacteria. is poor on vacuumpacked, normal pH meat stored near O"C. Pathogenic serotypes of yersinia appear to be inhibited by carbon dioxide at 4 'c (Kleinlein and Untermann, 1990). rc Modified atmospheres. To maintain the bright red colour of meat. retail cuts are packed with an atmosphere high in oxygen (70-80%) and carbon dioxide (20-2Yk) in rigid plastic containers of low gas permeability. The high carbon dioxide concentration inhibits the Gram-negative aerobic flora and extends shelf-life.