Download Lettere by Niccolò Machiavelli PDF

By Niccolò Machiavelli

L'epistolario del Machiavelli rappresenta una delle più ricche e corpose raccolte della tradizione letteraria italiana, e comprende una settantina di lettere. Si tratta di epistole “familiari”, scritte non con l'intento di pubblicarle, bensì con un'immediatezza che esula dal rigore della composizione letteraria e che ci permette di cogliere il punto di vista dell'autore sulla politica e sulle problematiche del suo pace, oltre che los angeles sua personalità. Particolarmente degne di nota le epistole destinate a Francesco Guicciardini e Francesco Vettori. Questa pubblicazione è oggi disponibile in formato e-book, con compendio critico integrato mediante ipertesto.

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Sample text

After pointing out that this kind of substance and completion is called ‘nature’, Aristotle says that for this reason, [in the case of] things that are and come to be naturally, although in many instances that from which they are completed and come to be already exists, we do not say that these things have their nature unless they have also acquired their appropriate form and completed state. e. the substance, in virtue of which each thing has its being; it was these that he first mentioned. And thus ‘nature’ would have the three meanings he has just added.

Of the nature within him, and this is a soul of a certain kind. The expression, ‘qua that thing’, occurring in this text is equivalent to what is said about nature in the Physics: ‘in itself and not by accident’. For there, after saying that nature is a principle of movement in that to which it primarily belongs, Aristotle adds, ‘[in itself] and not by accident’ [192b22], expressing by that addition what he here says by the phrase, ‘qua that thing’. The words, ‘the primary movement’, may indicate spatial (kata topon) movement (for locomotion (phora) is the first kind of movement, as has been shown, and every natural body is capable of local movement, although not all of them can grow or be altered).

Or else, ‘the first of the three, those that [proceed] by means of one middle term’, is equivalent to, ‘the first Translation 27 syllogisms, those consisting of three terms of which one is the middle term’; syllogisms such as these, because they are first, are implicit in the demonstrations that come after them. ) The conclusions of the first syllogisms are assumed for the proof of things that are proved subsequently. ’ And the meaning of this version would be that the first syllogisms of the first three figures, which come to be by means of the three middle terms, are elements of demonstrations and of [subsequent] syllogisms; for the middle term is different for each figure, but the first syllogisms in each figure are the simple ones, and these are the ones that proceed by means of one middle term.

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