By Michel Onfray
Le siècle dit « des Lumières » ne pouvait échapper à los angeles contre-expertise de l'hédoniste Michel Onfray. Les Lumières officielles semblent bien palichonnes au regard du radicalisme de certains philosophes trop négligés. Ainsi, tandis que Voltaire veut « écraser l'infâme » et tandis que Rousseau les fustige également, se formule une pensée hédoniste, athée, matérialiste, révolutionnaire mais pas comme l'historiographie marxiste, elle aussi ici déconstruite, l'a prétendu. Ce courant de pensée génère beaucoup moins le marxisme qu'on l'a dit, mais une sensibilité jamais nommée : l « utilitarisme français ». Une fois passée los angeles Manche au siècle suivant, cette façon de penser, radicalement opposée à Kant, donnera l. a. philosophie anglo-saxonne avec sa spécificité qui los angeles distingue tant de l. a. pensée continentale. Meslier, l. a. Mettrie, Maupertuis, Helvétius, D Holbach incarnent cette sensibilité pendant que Sade est lu par Onfray comme ce qu'il est : un penseur féodal, délinquant relationnel, contre-révolutionnaire et précurseur du fascisme (voir los angeles lecture des Cent vingt journées de Sodome), et non le grand libérateur qu'on se plait habituellement à dire los angeles Contre-Histoire comptera, au ultimate, 6 volumes. Les titres à venir seront : Tome five : « L'eudemonisme social » Tome 6 : « Les radicalités existentielles »
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Extra resources for Les ultras des lumières (Contre-histoire de la philosophie, tome 4)
Socrates' attempted counter-examples collapse if we reply that courage is worth having because it is usually a good thing and leads to the best action, but may sometimes lead us astray. Socrates must insist that if an action is virtuous, a virtuous man will always have overriding reason to do it—otherwise his virtue will not guide his action as it should. He assumes that an action we have overriding reason to do must be good and beneficial, in a way not further explained by L7. This same assumption that a virtuous man will always be guided by his virtue leads Socrates from L7 to L8.
On some accounts, the moves required for the argument about justice might be defensible; but a large task faces Socrates. The Crito does indeed rely on 'previous agreements' in other Socratic dialogues which link virtue, admirability, benefit, and happiness. But the problem of justice seems to create a dilemma; either justice is a virtue and not all virtues benefit the agent, or virtues do benefit the agent, and justice is not a virtue. Socrates does not show he can avoid this dilemma with a suitable account of justice and benefit.
Now a virtuous man will always regard virtue and virtuous action as worth while and will prefer them to anything else. His preference can be rationally justified only if his virtue and virtuous action can be shown to contribute to his final good. Socrates can now justify the procedure of the elenchos. Proposed accounts of virtues should be adjusted to beliefs about the final good, because they will then contribute to what a rational man will think most worth while; and the revised beliefs will be less prone to conflict than the original beliefs were, if beliefs about the good are not haphazard, but depend 4.