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For he too grants that the heavens are animate and for this reason divine. If it is divine, he says, and has the best mode of existence, it is animate; for nothing that is honorable is without soul, as he wrote in his On Heaven. (trans. 122) This fragment confirms Theophrastus’ critical engagement with Aristotle’s notion of a radically transcendent Unmoved Mover in the latter’s Metaphysics. Can the universe be explained on its own terms, or does its order depend on some higher, ultimate principles?

In Cleanthes’ case he does not spell out in so many words what he takes the contradiction to consist in. But the point is obvious enough. Cleanthes clearly recognizes distinct virtues of control, courage, justice and moderation. But at the same time his explanation of what makes these virtues different also makes it clear that he recognizes only a single strength and might in every case. The circumstances differ in which this force gets exercised, but nothing he says suggests that it takes on different characters when it does so.

He presents a third option on p. 25, where he talks about intellect as cosmic intellect, yet as such distinct from the World Soul; see also 235. Tarán himself dismisses this evidence on the grounds that it appears to be merely dependent on Aristotle’s information and that it is possibly contaminated by Neoplatonism (1981: 303). He proposes instead that intellect is indeed related to soul, but that the principle of soul here does not stand for the World Soul (47–8, 376–9). The Academy, the Stoics and Cicero on Plato’s Timaeus 35 works.

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