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By Lauren A. Benton

Invisible Factories analyzes the function of the casual financial system in nationwide improvement and weighs substitute claims approximately its influence on business improvement. precise case reviews of the electronics and shoe industries in Spain display the restructuring procedure. Benton examines the transformation of principles approximately paintings and gender, the transferring strains of clash among staff and employers, and turning out to be tensions among nationwide and local pursuits. She exhibits that those parts of the office and nationwide politics, instead of the good judgment of monetary improvement, commandthe new commercial order.

Benton asks how decentralization of creation has affected staff, business progress, and the recasting of business coverage. Explored extensive are the plight of girls outworkers, the historical past of nearby exertions conflicts, and the evolution of national-level bargaining between unions, employers, and the country.

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Additional resources for Invisible Factories: The Informal Economy and Industrial Development in Spain

Example text

A study by the Valencian regional government showed that in the toy industry, not only are the more labor­intensive phases of production (for example, the sewing of dolls' clothes, painting dolls, and light assembly) increasingly being put out to homeworkers, but capital­intensive phases such as plastic molding and various types of metalwork are also being subcontracted to new small producers as the older established firms give way to smaller, decentralized ventures specializing in marketing and design (Consellería D'Industria 1984).

1 The further fragmentation of industry and the resurgence of informal labor offered an escape from confrontations with unions and a strategy for diluting the force of the movement over time (Gómez 1983).  Despite the leadership and participation of the Spanish left, the movement did not share the political orientation of unrest elsewhere in Europe during 1968 and 1969; workers did not propose radically altering their relationship to capital but were responding instead to a backlog of basic reforms that had been postponed or ignored during the authoritarian regime (see Chapter 6).

Moreover, the Spanish economy is simultaneously emerging from a long period with a highly regulated industrial sector.  The state's actions are also constricted by strong international pressures to implement austerity programs.  The narrow scope for public discussion of economic policy matters under Franco gave way quickly to a controlled debate over a few issues central to the tripartite negotiations surrounding successive pacts.  The Socialists would also claim credit for preventing the reemergence of a sharp left­right polarization in Spain, but it is more accurate to say that they astutely occupied a large political center that was firmly committed to stability in the postauthoritarian period.

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