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By Steve Skidmore (auth.)

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Finally, there is no possibility of the analyst observing the user's workplace or work practices. The dchness of information imparted in the body language of the interview is forsaken. A few guidelines in questionnaire design are offered below. • Clearly explain the purpose of the questionnaire. • Phrase the questions so that they are unambiguous, concise, and unbiased. • Avoid long questionnaires with many different types of information being sought. • Test the wording and structure of the questionnaire and ask sampie respondents to explain their understanding of each question.

The use of present values introduces the principle of time preference. In this approach future cash flows are discounted using an appropriate interest rate. These discount factors can be ca1culated using an appropriate fonnula or taken from published Discount Tables. 34 The total present value (or Net Present Value - NPV) of the project is less than zero and this indicates that, other things being equal, the project is not worth doing. The same approach can be used for comparing two investment options.

This will lead to the final two stages of implementing 'feasible and desirable' changes. Three kinds of changes are envisaged. • Structural: Organisational groupings, reporting structures or functional responsibilities. • Procedures: Processes of reporting and informing. • Attitudes: Changes in influence, expectations and perception. The strength of the Soft Systems approach is in its insistence upon a framework, rather than a prescription, for organisational activity. It tends to recognise the difficulty of getting to grips with a problem area and, in doing so, acknowledges a complexity whieh may be missing from the 'sanitised' corporate vision ofthe Strategie Plan.

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