Download Income Inequality and Poverty in Eastern and Western Europe by Notburga Ott, Gert G. Wagner PDF

By Notburga Ott, Gert G. Wagner

The most goal of the publication is the research of source of revenue inequality and poverty in a comparative context. The booklet comprises articles at the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia lower than transition. Western eu nations that are into consideration are: Belgium, Catalonia, France, Germany (East and West), Greece, eire, Italy, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and uk. aim in addition to subjective ways for size of poverty are used. The ebook offers references to public use documents that could be used for personal study of readers.

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These minimum standards which would be well below the average should be related to the threshold of marginalization, which itself is difficult to state precisely. With a living condition definition it is, therefore, also necessary to use value judgements to set minimum standards in every dimension; falling short of which is an indication of poverty. Furthermore, it must be determined whether poverty is confirmed by failing to reach the minimum standard in one dimension or whether only certain cumulative failures to reach several minimum standards should lead to poverty being established.

For a short discussion and references to the literature see Sen (1992, chapter 7). MAIN PROBLEMS 45 In international comparisons of poverty, it must, therefore, always be checked as to whether such differences exist for the group of people initially identified as being poor, and if necessary additional assessments must be made. This can also affect the calculation of the average. A final general problem with resource definitions is that they are always geared towards the needs of "normal people".

The alternative is determining a method of deriving equivalence scales with which the appropriate scale can be empirically determined in all countries being compared. These country-specific scales would then be used 44 RICHARD HAUSER in comparative studies of poverty. Such methods are available, but the value judgement problem is only pushed back one stage ll . When using equivalence scales an unequal distribution of consumption amongst members of a household, which could lead to poverty for individuals, is obviously not taken into account.

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