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The typical demands of these groups would be political in nature and particularly related to the unfairness of particular electoral processes. In this context, post-electoral conflicts would be recurrent. Basic political demands of these groups and their respective leaders would include free and fair elections, the democratization of federal/state/municipal power structures, respect for political and civil rights, and the end of corruption and government repression. Certain key factors contribute to the occurrence of APF in contexts of weak political institutions, where electoral exclusion is a dominant feature of the political process.

In such contexts, the development and quality of electoral processes—in particular the presence of free and competitive elections—is essential. , Democracy and Development ; Remmer). For example, utilizing data for South America, Remmer finds that the sustainability of regimes is mostly “conditioned by the existence of institutionalized opportunities for both participation and contestation—opportunities that are less a matter of coercion (or consent) than of rules governing the political game” (631).

Explanatory Variable 1: Economic Inequality Massive popular mobilizations and political violence in contemporary Latin America are often related to social frustrations and alleged exploitation in contexts of economic crisis or economic stagnation, massive poverty, and, particularly, high levels of inequality. It is worth noting that if economic Factionalism in “D emo cr atic” Mexico 21 inequality is the main cause of APF, the major concerns and motivations of rebellious groups and popular movements should revolve around distributive issues.

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