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By Susan Scott

Human Demography and ailment bargains an interdisciplinary and built-in standpoint at the dating among ancient populations and the dynamics of epidemiological techniques. It brings the concepts of time-series research and laptop matrix modeling to old demography and geography to extract exact info about the oscillations in births, deaths, migrations and epidemics. This booklet provides a brand new means of learning preindustrial groups and explores the sophisticated, and hitherto undetected results of fluctuating dietary degrees on mortality styles and the dynamics of infectious illnesses.

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7) and burials (Fig. 4). This oscillation again shows more clearly in the baptism series; the filtered picture for burials is obscured by the mortality crises. These findings might suggest that the heavy mortality of the plagues at Penrith may have triggered the long wavelength population oscillations which then persisted for 150 years until the boom began in 1750. 46 Identification of population oscillations A second feature of the demography of Penrith is the relative constancy in the mean annual number of both recorded baptisms and burials throughout the period 1557 to 1750, in spite of the underlying oscillations.

7) Time of weaning. (8) Child's probability of surviving; were boys or girls favoured? (9) Variations in the age of mating. (10) Patterns of illegitimacy and the correlation with major migratory movements and the establishment of a frontier society (see Scott & Duncan, 1997a). Any metapopulation study (Chapter 15) will need to incorporate such eco-sociological behaviour. (11) Was Penrith, 1550-1750 (Chapters 7 and 8), with a very low agespecific marital fertility (Scott & Duncan, 1996), high cyclical migration and a steady-state population, a situation in which Darwinian competition was expressed as displacement competition (Voland, 1988; Hill & Kaplan, 1988)?

For areas specialising in beef cattle production and fattening, the demand for labour is likely to have been limited to the seasonal periods of hay-making and to have been concentrated on farms which, because they overwintered large numbers of cattle, had to produce considerable quantities of hay (Gregson, 1989). Furthermore, with expanding population, holdings often consisted of land enclosed from the marginal lands of the common pasture, usually not good arable, which would have to be returned to grass after they became exhausted.

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