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By S. H. Irvine, J. W. Berry

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An average 10point increase on a first test mean of 60 was produced by retesting, and another 10 points had been added by the third session. Lloyd and Pidgeon's (1961) paper also showed that the rate of increase varied when different ethnic groups were involved, Africans increasing most, Indians next, and Europeans least. The recent report (Marmorale & Brown, 1982) of differ- Abilities of mankind: A revaluation 25 ential improvement rates for Hispanics, blacks, and whites on WISC scale scores adjusted for age increase, underlines the need for repeated measure studies of test behaviour.

IRVINE & J. W. BERRY extended just as easily to all nonschool environmental variables, such as social class, religious and language groups, mother-child interactions, and the like. All show effects; but variable effects in cultures prevent the accurate prediction of which classification will produce what effect in any context. Specific learning environments. We perceive these results as demonstrating the law of cultural differentiation, in that African contexts do not support the assumption of identical effects on test score variance for each and every culture.

Explanation of consistent results. Irvine then attempted to account for the generality of the findings from the data of psychologists who had operated in all types of cultures, schools, languages, climates, and habitats. He extended his earlier description (Irvine, 1965) of the variance sources available in test scores from one exotic culture to account for universals of the six broad dimensions of abilities across all the literature, and the trend to positive correlation within each study. He suggested that if enough studies were available from enough psychologists operating in different contexts, then the families of tests that remained constant in spite of the widest possible range of cultural and experimenter idiosyncrasy had to be attributable to intrahominem characteristics.

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