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By Denise Schmandt-Besserat

In 1992, the collage of Texas Press released ahead of Writing, quantity I: From Counting to Cuneiform and prior to Writing, quantity II: A Catalog of close to jap Tokens. In those volumes, Denise Schmandt-Besserat set forth her groundbreaking conception that the cuneiform script invented within the close to East within the overdue fourth millennium B.C.--the world's oldest recognized procedure of writing--derived from an archaic counting equipment. How Writing took place attracts fabric from either volumes to provide Schmandt-Besserat's conception for a large public and school room viewers. in accordance with the research and interpretation of a variety of 8,000 tokens or counters from 116 websites in Iran, Iraq, the Levant, and Turkey, it files the quick precursor of the cuneiform script.

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30. On the literary revival under the Larsa kings, see the analysis in Brisch (2007), with special emphasis on the letter. prayers of the period. The Royal CorresjJoruience of the Ur III Kings 33 is laden with metaphor and poetic parallelism. Indeed, the text is so filled with metaphorical imagery that it is impossible to ascertain what actually caused Abaindasa to . fall out of favor with his liege. Fortunately, unlike any other text of this genre, this one has a larger epistolographic context, as there is an exchange of letters between the Grand Vizier Aradmu and King Sulgi concerning this matter to the king.

Recently, Eleanor Robson (2001: 49), writing about mathematical exercises, stated: The shon extracts on Type IIli and Type III tablets we'e deployed in a srudent's first enCQUllLerS with a composition, at< he memorized it section by secrion, The longer passages on Types I, nlz, and P tablets, on me other hand, seem [() be writtell ill order to revise earlier work) consolidating individually memorized sections into lengthier segments. '" , , ' The Royal Correspondence of the Ur III Kings The Royal Letters in Their Literary Setting 52 Delnero (2006: 105-6) investigated the relationship between Type I and Type III tablets of the Decad and concluded that compositions were generally divided into four sections, each on a sepatate Type III tablet, to aid memorization, after which the student was required to write out the whole poem from memory.

The Old Babylonian literary letters use a formula that ~:~ru to crystallize in Sargonic times but is formalized, with som~ variation, during tbe Ur III period, The basic outline of this development was descnbed hy Sollberger (1966: 2-3) and his outline remains valid to this day. In its classic fonn, the formula reads: BuccellatO. I' ;'1 RECIPIENT-ra il-na-(a)-dug 4 ADDRESSOR na-ah-be-a Most seholars have interpreted the first verb as formally "prospective" but functionally imperative, corresponding to Akkadian qibima.

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