By Jeffrey M. Lemm
The contributions to this quantity specialize in chosen chemical features of rare-earth fabrics. the subjects coated variety from a easy remedy of crystalline electric-field results and chemical interactions in natural solvents, to separation strategies, electrochemical beaviors which impression corrosion, oxidation resistance, chemical strength garage and sensor expertise, and to analytical procedures.
Underlying the main refined chemical and optical homes of those components and their compounds within the condensed nation are the crystal box results. This phenomenon in non-metallic compounds is mentioned in bankruptcy six. the quantity opens with a overview of significant new solvent extraction approaches in addition to rising substitute separation procedures comparable to photochemical separation, precipitation stripping and supercritical extraction. clinical and business strategies are illustrated. In another bankruptcy 8 significant analytical concepts of acquiring actual hint research are tested, tabulated and assessed. the best systems of every also are reviewed. bankruptcy considers a large choice of tools utilizing rare-earth strategies and slats to switch advantageously the high priced deterioration of metals and alloys. This subject is multiplied within the following bankruptcy, paying specific cognizance to safety opposed to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidization and hot-salt corrosion. the subsequent chapters are curious about the flexibility of the infrequent earths in addressing present technical difficulties such using rare-earth intermetallics, largely LaNi
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Extra info for Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. vol.21
This form of operation has been under investigation by many companies and laboratories and successfully developed by two investigations conducted independently. One of the systems is the Higgins Solid-Liquid Contactor which has been described in detail by I. R. Higgins and J. T. 14). Another system is shown in Fig. 6 (W2). The operation illustrated can best be visualized by following the two main cycles within the system. In the treatment cycle the raw feed is introduced into the bottom of the treatment cell and flows upward through the resin bed in the lower and upper compartments.
Ion Exchange Resins," pp. 83, 85, 86. Wiley, New York, 1950. Ml. Mindler, A. , U. S. Patent 2,466,662 (April 5, 1949). M2. Mindler, A. , in "Ion Exchange Theory and Application" (F. C. ), p. 315. Academic Press, NewT York, 1949. N l . Neubert, A. , Graham, D. , Henry, J. , Brekke, J. , and Beardsley, C. , J. Agr. Food Chem. 2, No. 1, 30 (1954). Rl. Rawlings, F. , U. S. Patent 2,366,651 (January 2, 1945). 51. Shafor, R. , U. S. Patent 2,365,221 (December 19, 1944). 52. Simpson, D. , and Wheaton, R.
The choice of which of the above systems to use is, as mentioned before, based on the analysis of the raw water and the specifications of the treated water. In addition, the economics of the treatment also have a bearing on the choice of treatment. This can only be determined by reviewing the problem in question, but in general, it can be stated that the higher the degree of treatment, the more expensive the treatment becomes in both first cost and operating costs. 22 Sugar and Allied Processes For the treatment of sugar, only two ion exchange systems have been used to date.