By Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta Ph.D,
A entire reference for the chicken industry—Volume 2 describes chicken processing from uncooked meat to ultimate retail productsWith an unprecedented point of insurance, the instruction manual of chicken technology and know-how presents an up to date and finished reference on chicken processing. quantity 2: Secondary Processing covers processing bird from uncooked meat to raw, cooked or semi-cooked retail items. It contains the clinical, technical, and engineering ideas of fowl processing, equipment and product different types, product production and attributes, and sanitation and safety.Volume 2: Secondary Processing is split into seven parts:Secondary processing of fowl products—an overviewMethods in processing chook products—includes emulsions and gelations; breading and battering; mechanical deboning; marination, cooking, and curing; and non-meat ingredientsProduct manufacturing—includes canned chicken meat, turkey bacon and sausage, breaded product (nuggets), paste product (p?t?), chicken ham, luncheon meat, processed sensible egg items, and specific nutritional items for the aged, the in poor health, teenagers, and infantsProduct caliber and sensory attributes—includes texture and tenderness, protein and fowl meat caliber, flavors, colour, dealing with refrigerated fowl, and moreEngineering rules, operations, and equipment—includes processing gear, thermal processing, packaging, and moreContaminants, pathogens, research, and caliber assurance—includes microbial ecology and spoilage in chicken and bird items; campylobacter; microbiology of ready-to-eat fowl items; and chemical and microbial analysisSafety structures within the United States—includes U.S. sanitation necessities, HACCP, U.S. enforcement instruments and mechanisms
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Extra resources for Handbook of Poultry Science and Technology, Secondary Processing (Volume 2)
If this stage velocity is faster, gels will be dull, with little elasticity and will clearly be unstable when facing syneresis and exudation (Fennema, 1996). The development of a particular type of link in a gel network depends, among other factors, on the type and concentration of protein, pH, ionic strength, heating rate, and ﬁnal temperature (Smith, 1988, 1994). If the forces of attraction are weak, proteins will be added and the intersection will be so strong that they can no longer unite water and, consequently, will precipitate (Matsutmura and Mori, 1996; Totosaus and Guerrero-Legarreta, 2006).
The elastic properties also help to keep any insoluble solids in suspension. In recent years, numerous results have been published on the effects of replacing some or all of the wheat ﬂour with the ﬂours of other cereals, mainly rice; they are generally described in terms of improved texture characteristics, bringing greater crunchiness. The effects of soy ﬂour (5%) and rice ﬂour (5%) additions to the batter formulation on the quality of deep-fat fried chicken nuggets have been evaluated in terms of coating pickup, moisture and oil contents, texture, color, and porosity.
1992). , 2000a). Gums have the ability to keep solids in suspension. , 1992). The enhanced viscosity conferred by gums also makes it possible to obtain batters with a greater proportion of water while maintaining appropriate viscosity. This property has been used to increase the quantity of water available for starch gelatinization (Davis, 1983). The gums most often used have been xanthan gum and the cellulose derivatives carboxymethycellulose (CMC), methylcellulose (MC), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC).