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By Pradyot Patnaik

Guide of Inorganic chemical substances Pradyot Patnaik *An vital resource--covering 2000 common commercial chemical compounds--that providers readers from a large cross-section of the chemical neighborhood. Pradyot Patnaik (Lindenwood, NJ) is Laboratory Director, Insterstate Sanitation fee, Visting Professor

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05 hr. Beta emission Am-246 39 min. Beta emission Am-246 25 min. Beta emission (isomer) Am-247 ~22 min. Beta emission Occurrence Americium does not occur in nature. It is a man-made element produced in nuclear reactors. Uses One of its isotopes, Am-241, is a portable source for gamma radiography; also a source of ionization for smoke detectors. In the glass industry, it is used as a radioactive glass thickness gage. Other isotopes do not have much commercial application. 67 g/cm3; soluble in dilute acids.

Chemical Reactions The compound decomposes to γ−alumina and SO3 when heated between 580 and 900°C. It combines with water forming hydrated salts of various compositions. Produces calcium aluminate with evolution of SO3 when calcined with CaCO4, (Bayliss, N. S. 1945. J and Proc. Austral. Chem. , 12, 127) Al2(SO4)3 + CaSO4 ——› Ca(AlO2)2 + 4SO3 Reacts with NaHCO3 in aqueous solution, forming fire-extinguishing foams, producing CO2, (Albert K. 1937. French Pat. 11%. Al may be determined by colorimetric method or by atomic absorption or emission spectrophotometry; sulfate may be determined by BaCl2 precipitation method in the aqueous solution of the salt.

Qxd 10/23/02 2:16 PM Page 17 AMERICIUM 17 od of years), can be separated by extraction. Am-242 and Am-243 isotopes can be prepared from Am-241 by neutron bombardments: 241 95 Am + 01n→ 242 95 Am + γ 242 95 Am + 01n→ 243 95 Am + γ Also, Am-243 can be made from Pu-242, which can be prepared either by very intense neutron irradiation of Pu-239, or from Am-241; resulting from successive neutron-capture reactions. 241 95 Am + 01n→ 242 95 Am + γ 242 95 + Am → 242 94 Pu + e 242 94 Pu + 01n→ 243 94 Pu + γ 243 94 – Pu βdecay → 243 95 Am + e - The Pu-242 obtained in the nuclear reaction is separated by chemical extraction.

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