By Pierre Alféri
Au début du XIVe siècle, Guillaume d’Ockham assigna à l. a. philosophie une tâche nouvelle, dont elle a encore à s’acquitter : penser los angeles singularité de chaque selected, décrire depuis ce aspect irréductible le contenu de l’expérience et le fonctionnement du langage. Pour cerner ce projet, on suggest ici une interprétation systématique de l. a. pensée d’Ockham.
En affirmant résolument leur singularité, il cherche dans les choses mêmes un aspect de départ modeste pour los angeles philosophie. C’est le projet d’une ontologie réduite à sa plus uncomplicated expression. Il demande à l’expérience de montrer remark cet arbre, cette pierre devient pour nous l’élément d’une série – les arbres, les pierres. C’est le projet d’un empirisme. Il demande au langage de montrer que l’on peut, fût-ce par des termes généraux, signifier des choses singulières, afin d’analyser los angeles référence sous toutes ses formes. C’est le projet d’un nominalisme.
Singularité, sérialité, référence : trois faits fondateurs et trois questions à nouveau ouvertes. Qu’est-ce que le singulier ? remark, autour de lui, constituer des séries ? remark le signifier ?
Cet ouvrage est paru en 1989.
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Extra resources for Guillaume d'Ockham. Le singulier
Only lived time is experienced directly, introspectively. Time is immediately given in experience. It is directly felt as a datum. "2 It is a datum but not a simple datum. Sensed, perceived time is always complex. To believe that there is such a thing as a simple sensation is to be working with a fiction. 3 Fibers of the past are wound into the smallest perceived units of duration. Since the pasts of individuals differ, it would follow that the time perceptions of individuals differ, too. But they do not differ completely.
His doctrine of space is not the only, or even the most prominent, Leibnizean aspect of Whitehead's philosophy. " Both are considered the ultimate foundations of all that is real; neither philosopher will tolerate a free-floating property or relation not tied down to one of the basic substances.! For both men these basic ontological units are organic, capable of development, and enjoy, even at the lowest levels, a perspection upon the world as a whole. For neither philosopher is God an exception to the basic categorial scheme; God differs from other entities essentially by the character of the perception he enjoys on the cosmos.
3 All such times, he argues, are abstractions. They are the flesh and blood of the paradoxes and antinomies of time, but they are lifeless in the real world of process and change. Their essence is that they are the hypothetical absolute crests of the waxingclimaxing-waning processes in nature. All real experience is voluminous and intense. Sensed time is thick and enduring. Lived time is a saddle-back, not a knife edge. 4 We sit astride a specious present. Perhaps angelic beings can perch on time-points, but men know time as durational units.