By Raoul Zana, Jiding Xia
Producing a lot curiosity in either educational and clinical circles, Gemini Surfactants gathers the main updated study in gemini surfactantproduction and demonstrates how their propertiesand functionality can revolutionize the present business program of those surfactants. It surveys the nation of unique gemini surfactants, together with nonionic, zwitterionic, fluorinated, and amino-acid-based surfactants.
Gemini Surfactants considers the synthesis, section habit, and rheology of gemini and comparable surfactants and clarifies the adsorption and floor stress habit of gemini surfactants at air–water, oil–water, and solid–water interfaces. The booklet additionally information the physicochemical houses and microstructure of aqueous micellar strategies of gemini surfactants and describes combined micellization among gemini surfactants and traditional surfactants.
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Additional info for Gemini Surfactants: Synthesis, Interfacial and Solution-Phase Behavior, and Applications
Some examples are now given. From α-olefin (see Scheme 17), sulfonate gemini surfactants with a bis-acyloxy (formamide is decisively required as solvent for the involved interesterification) , oligo-oxyethylene , 2-hydroxypropylene , or oligoiminoethylene  spacer were reported. From α-sulfonated fatty acid (see SCHEME 15 Anionic gemini surfactant from epoxyalkane. (From Ref. ) Synthesis of gemini (dimeric) and related surfactants 21 SCHEME 16 Asymmetric gemini surfactants. (From Refs.
Synthesis of gemini (dimeric) and related surfactants 27 SCHEME 26 Polyoxyethylene-type nonionic gemini surfactants. (From Ref. ) SCHEME 27 Sugar-amine and sugaramide gemini surfactants. (From Refs. ) Gemini surfactants 28 SCHEME 28 Sugar-based gemini and trimeric surfactants. (From Ref. ) A wide range of monosaccharide- and disaccharide-based nonionic gemini and trimeric surfactants was prepared (Scheme 28) . Some steps of synthesis rely on the use of enzymes for regioselective introduction of fatty acids into carbohydrate moieties.
ZWITTERIONIC GEMINI SURFACTANTS By utilizing a taurine structure as a pivot, amphoteric gemini surfactants, which may show interesting aggregation behavior, were prepared from a diglycidyl compound as represented in Scheme 30 . Complexane-type Synthesis of gemini (dimeric) and related surfactants 29 SCHEME 29 Sugar-based nonionic gemini surfactants. (From Refs. ) gemini, multi-armed gemini, and trimeric surfactants having sec-amino 2-(1carboxyalkylamino)ethyl moieties were prepared. The latter has a two-dimensional spread of hydrophilic groups, as shown in Scheme 31 .