By Stig Friberg, Kare Larsson, Johan Sjoblom
Examines droplet flocculation and coalescence in dilute oil-in-water emulsions, beverage emulsions, rheology of focused emulsions, floor forces in emulsions, molecular association in lipids, and meals emulsifiers.
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5), and as they do so, the caseins are desorbed, so the surface coverage by protein remains approximately constant (184). Only the major caseins are desorbed, however, with the as2- and k-caseins remaining on the emulsion droplets. This behavior has been insufficiently studied to be fully understood. Interestingly, it is the whey protein which displaces b-casein; this is similar to the effect of surfactants described in the previous section. It is not known why the minor caseins resist displacement; the obvious possibility, that disulfide bonds are formed between these caseins and the whey proteins, does not seem to occur (185).
This ‘‘orogenic’’ displacement reaction explains some anomalous research results on the apparent thickness of adsorbed layers (17) and also offers the interesting possibility that the inhomogeneous structure of the interface may lead to areas of different reactivity. The results using AFM have been confirmed by studies using neutron reflectivity (172), which showed that the removal of the protein (b-lactoglobulin) by the surfactant is not a single continuous process. Modeling of the displacement reaction has been able to reproduce some aspects of the exchange behavior, using a fairly simple model (173,174).
Oil-soluble surfactants (low HLB numbers) are less effective at completely displacing protein or of preventing protein adsorption (16,168,169). For solubility reasons, these surfactants cannot be added to the emulsion after it has been formed, but must be incorporated during the homogenization step. In addition to competing with proteins for adsorption to the oil– water interface, both during formation of the emulsion and its subsequent storage, some small-molecule surfactants also facilitate the exchange Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.