By Jie Zhang, Guillaume de la Roche
This booklet offers an in-depth consultant to femtocell technologiesIn this booklet, the authors supply a accomplished and arranged clarification of the femtocell options, structure, air interface applied sciences, and tough concerns coming up from the deployment of femtocells, similar to interference, mobility administration and self-organization. The booklet information a method point simulation established method addressing the major matters of femtocell deployment resembling interference among femto and macrocells, and the functionality of either femto and macrocell layers. moreover, key learn subject matters in interference modeling and mitigation, mobility administration and Self-Organizing community (SON) are highlighted. The authors additionally introduce HNB/HeNB standardization in 3GPP.. additionally, entry tools (closed, open and hybrid), functions, timing synchronization, healthiness concerns, company types and safeguard are mentioned. The authors additionally offer a comparability among femtocells and different indoor insurance thoughts comparable to picocells, repeaters, disbursed antenna platforms and radio over fiber. finally, either CDMA and OFDMA dependent femtocells are covered.Key Features:Provides a finished reference on femtocells and comparable issues bargains the newest learn effects on femtocells in keeping with simulation and measurements provides an outline of indoor insurance innovations similar to picocells, repeaters, disbursed antenna platforms, radio over fiber and femtocells contains chapters on femtocell entry community structure, air interface applied sciences (GSM, UMTS, HSPA, WiMAX and LTE), femtocell simulation, interference research and mitigation in femto/macrocell networks, mobility administration in femto/macrocell networks, femtocell self-organization and different key demanding situations similar to timing synchronization and safety confronted by way of femtocell deployment issues to over 240 references from 3GPP, The Femto discussion board, journals and convention lawsuits This e-book can be a useful consultant for RF engineers from operators, R&D engineers from femtocells brands, staff from regulatory our bodies, radio community planners, lecturers and researchers from universities and examine businesses. scholars venture instant communications classes also will locate this booklet insightful.
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Extra info for Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment
These are deployed in speciﬁc areas in which extra capacity is known to be needed, for example near a train station or in a city centre. They are also often temporarily deployed during special occasions like sporting events, for example. Adding microcells in the urban environment allows the operator to subdivide the cells, leading to an optimization of the use of the spectrum and ensuring a better capacity. All the previously described methods (macrocells, microcells) have been used for a long time, but they only indirectly optimize the indoor coverage by increasing the outdoor coverage.
4. The number of antennas to use and the output power are important parameters that must be planned carefully and will be very dependent on the kind of environment. As shown in , both in single cell and multi-cell environments, DAS using an efﬁcient power control increase capacity and reduce interference. 5. In  some interesting relationships are discussed. 5 Areas covered by a single antenna, and four distributed antennas the signal loss from distance dr to reference distance d. 3) with d the distance from the source, C a constant, and α the Path Loss exponent.
Unfortunately, this approach is expensive for operators because they have to install more sites, which dramatically increases the maintenance costs. Moreover, this solution also creates more problems concerning interference, as more cells will overlap each other. Finally, improving indoor radio coverage by adding outdoor cells is not optimal because it does not directly optimize indoor coverage and thus the efﬁciency of such a method is not optimal. To overcome the limitation of outdoor cells, different approaches have been proposed in order to increase the indoor signal directly.