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By Wiktor Stoczkowski

The writer argues that theories of human origins built by way of archaeologists and actual anthropologists from the early 19th century to the current day are structurally just like Western folks theories, and to the speculations of previous philosophers. Reviewing a outstanding diversity of thinkers writing in a number of eu languages, he criticizes the shortcoming of improvement in theories of human origins, yet concludes with a bit of luck that the ability of the medical strategy will carry extra trustworthy theories--only whether it is aware of the luggage it contains over from well known discourse.

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Dunbar ; Kummer ; Smuts et al. . g. Beck ; Premack . Beck ; Boesch and Boesch ; Galdikas ; Goodall ; Jones and Sabater ; Jordan ; Lethmate ; McGrew , ; Nishida and Hiraiwa . Harding , ; Nishida et al. ; Strum ; Teleki . Gilk ; Lefebure ; McGrew , ; Strum ; Teleki ; de Waal . Latreille : ; see also the authors quoted and criticised in Buffon f/: , g/: –; also Bondt : –; Rousseau /: –, note ; Burnet  Explaining human origins But the question remains open: how are we to understand that all these characteristics, already attributed long ago to apes, and the majority of which are in fact found in apes, continue to figure in the list supposedly describing the features peculiar to human species?

Hunter-gatherers Industrial civilisation Confidence ‘they are not worried’ ‘the hunters have a confidence-born human means’ ‘they are never in a hurry’ ‘their wanderings, rather than anxious, take on all the qualities of a picnic outing on the Thames’ ‘they can look to the morrow without anxiety’ Anxiety ‘despair at the inadequacy of affluence’ ‘[we] can never do anything without hurry and worry’ Equality ‘all the people can usually participate in the going prosperity’ ‘democratic character of property’ Inequality ‘odious class distinction’ ‘a relationship of exploitation’ Freedom ‘the hunter is comparatively free of material pressures’ Enslavement ‘our humiliating enslavement to the material’ Happiness ‘happy condition’ ‘[the hunters] enjoy life’ Unhappiness Happiness, claimed Sahlins, depends on the complete satisfaction of our needs, and this becomes impossible when we are too demanding.

Diodorus Siculus : ; Garcilaso de la Vega /: ; Horace : ; Lucretius : , V. . Lucretius : , V. –; Garcilaso de la Vega /: ; Virgil : –. Acosta : ; Garcilaso de la Vega /: ; Lucretius : , V. –. Anthropogenesis and science  the image of animals and, like them, lacking everything believed to be specific to humans. Such a view of animality comes from a simple inversion of the image we have of humans, that is, of ourselves.

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