By Peter Clark
Because the heart a long time Europe has been some of the most urbanized continents on the earth and Europe's towns have firmly stamped their imprint at the continent's fiscal, social, political, and cultural existence. This research of ecu towns and cities from the autumn of the Roman Empire to the current day seems to be either at nearby traits from throughout Europe and likewise on the largely differing fortunes of person groups at the curler coaster of eu urbanization. Taking a wide-angled view of the continent that embraces northern and jap Europe in addition to the town structures of the Mediterranean and western Europe, it addresses very important debates starting from the character of city survival within the post-Roman period to the location of the eu urban in a globalizing global. The publication is split into 3 components, facing the center a while, the early glossy interval, and the 19th and 20th centuries - with each one half containing chapters on city traits, the city economic climate, social advancements, cultural existence and panorama, and governance. all through, the publication addresses key questions akin to the function of migration, together with that of ladies and ethnic minorities; the functioning of festival and emulation among towns, in addition to problems with inter-urban cooperation; the various methods civic leaders have sought to advertise city identification and visibility; the importance of city autonomy in allowing towns to guard their pursuits opposed to the country; and never least why eu towns and cities over the interval were such strain cookers for brand new rules and creativity, no matter if monetary, political, or cultural.
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Additional resources for European Cities and Towns: 400-2000
As in developing countries nowadays, natural disasters could have a disproportionate effect. In the Mediterranean world, earthquakes were a special problem, with seismic activity badly affecting Cadiz in 881, Cordoba in 944 and 955, and a wide swathe of Andalusian towns in 1024. Seven communities in the kingdom of Naples lost half their populations after the earthquake of 1456. In other parts of Europe, where many towns had wooden houses, ﬁre posed the greatest hazard. Conﬂagrations devastated Frankish towns in the sixth century, while great ﬁres were common in Flemish and English towns during the 22 urban trends 400 – 1500 high Middle Ages.
Urban trends 400 – 1500 31 In Western Europe the dominant themes were, ﬁrstly, consolidation of the urban network and, secondly, urban colonization—with thousands of new towns, many of them small, being founded in the two centuries before the Black Death. Existing urban communities witnessed considerable expansion. Rhineland cities prospered from the overland trade via the Alps to northern Italy, while across the Southern Netherlands centres like Ghent, Bruges, Tournai, Cambrai, Arras, and Ypres beneﬁted from the rising output of their industries, especially textiles, and growing trade in cloth and other goods to Germany, England, and (increasingly) to the Baltic and Italy.
By contrast, the administrative and ecclesiastical centres fared better, often aided by new fortiﬁcations. For example, Rouen, its new defences sheltering many refugees from Viking-occupied areas, saw its position consolidated as a major city after about 890. Moreover, the Vikings soon urbanized. After the Danish host settled in eastern England and established the Danelaw in 878, they adopted and developed older urban centres. York became the capital of the Danelaw, and a series of Viking kings resided there until their expulsion in 954; in the Midlands, the principal towns—the Five Boroughs—expanded under Danish control.