By Vickie A. Vaclavik, Elizabeth W. Christian
Necessities of foodstuff technological know-how covers the fundamentals of meals, meals technology, and nutrients know-how. The booklet is intended for the non-major intro path, no matter if taught within the nutrition technological know-how or nutrition/dietetics division. In past versions the booklet used to be prepared round the USDA nutrients Pyramid which has been changed. The revised pyramid will now be pointed out in applicable chapters in basic terms. different updates comprise new pictures, web site references, and culinary signals for culinary and nutrition training scholars. additional themes contain RFID (Radio frequency identification) tags, and trans fats disclosures. comprises updates on: foodstuff commodities, optimizing caliber, legislation, and meals safety.
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Additional resources for Essentials of Food Science (Food Science Text Series)
If the liquid is in a closed container, at equilibrium, some molecules are always evaporating and vapor molecules are condensing, so there is no overall change in the system. The vapor (gaseous) molecules that have escaped from the liquid state exert a pressure on the surface of the liquid known as the vapor pressure. When the vapor pressure is high, the liquid evaporates (is vaporized) easily and many molecules exist in the vapor state; the boiling point is low. Conversely, a low vapor pressure indicates that the liquid does not vaporize easily and that there are few molecules existing in the vapor state.
Soft water: Contains one to four grains per gallon, no mineral salts, some organic matter. Solution: (ionic or molecular) small molecules dissolved in water. Sublimation: When ice is subjected to vacuum and then heated, it gets converted to vapor without going through the liquid phase; basis for freeze-drying; occurs in freezer burn. Specific heat: The energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C whether heating water or ice; requires 1 cal/g per C. Suspension: Molecules larger than those in a solution or dispersion that are mixed with the surrounding medium.
Hydrogen bonds between hydrogen and oxygen are common, not just between water molecules but between many other types of molecules that are important in foods, such as sugars, starches, pectins, and proteins. Due to its V-shape, each molecule of water can form up to four hydrogen bonds with its nearest neighbors. Each hydrogen atom can form one hydrogen bond, but the oxygen atom can form two, which results in a three-dimensional lattice in ice. The structure of ice is dynamic and hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming between different water molecules.