By Teresa Whitfield
The violent Basque separatist staff ETA took form in Franco's Spain, but claimed the vast majority of its sufferers below democracy. for many Spaniards it grew to become an aberration, a felony and terrorist band whose patience defied rationalization. Others, mostly Basques (but just some Basques) understood ETA because the violent expression of a political clash that remained the incomplete company of Spain's transition to democracy. Such alterations hindered efforts to 'defeat' ETA's terrorism at the one hand and 'resolve the Basque clash' at the different for greater than 3 decades.
Endgame for ETA bargains a compelling account of the lengthy route to ETA's statement of a definitive finish to its armed task in October 2011. Its political surrogates stay as a part of a resurgence of neighborhood nationalism - within the Basque kingdom as in Catalonia - that's yet one portion of a number of crises confronting Spain. The Basque case has been stated as an ex- abundant of the perils of 'talking to terrorists'.
Drawing on huge box learn, Teresa Whitfield argues that whereas negotiations didn't prosper, a sort of 'virtual peacemaking' used to be an important supplement to powerful police motion and social condemnation. jointly they helped to carry ETA's violence to an finish and go back its grievances to the channels of standard politics.
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Extra resources for Endgame for ETA: Elusive Peace in the Basque Country
February: ETA announces a ceasefire in Catalonia. March: Bombs detonated in Madrid by Islamists kill 191; the PP ENDGAME FOR ETA—A TIMELINE 2005 2006 2007 government attributes attack to ETA. Days later, the PSOE wins general elections. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero becomes prime minister, supported by IU and ERC. October: Mikel Antza and other ETA members detained. November: Otegi introduces the Anoeta Proposal. December: Ibarretxe Plan narrowly approved by Basque Parliament. February: Ibarretxe Plan rejected by Spanish Parliament.
Against the backdrop of the slow progression towards the disarmament of ETA and the dismantling of its military structures, Endgame for ETA concludes with a return to some core questions. What led ETA to last so long, and what can we extract from the mix of counter-terrorism and political measures deployed to contest it? What does the Basque experience teach us about the benefits and risks of engagement, of counterterrorist discourse and legislation, and the wider question of the role of the legal system in a peace process?
The presence of international peacemakers in San Sebastián in October of that year was one indication that committed and discreet international efforts were also part of the story. â•… With the violence of ETA apparently out of the picture, and the political expression of radical Basque nationalism locked into a nonviolent future by its return to democratic politics, Spain faced an extraordinary opportunity to bring the rump organisation that was ETA to an orderly end. The issues that remained—prisoners, disarmament, exiles and reconciliation—were delicate from a political and emotional perspective, especially given the vocal role played by some organisations of ETA’s victims.