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By Viggo Norn

Emulsifiers are crucial elements of many business meals recipes. they've got the facility to behave on the interface among levels, and so can stabilise the specified mixture of oil and water in a mayonnaise, ice cream or salad dressing. they could additionally stabilise gas/liquid combos in foams. greater than that, they're more and more hired in textural and organoleptic amendment, in shelf existence enhancement, and as complexing or stabilising brokers for different parts reminiscent of starch or protein. purposes comprise enhancing the rheology of chocolate, the strengthening of dough, crumb softening and the retardation of staling in bread.


This quantity, now in a revised and up to date moment version, introduces emulsifiers to these formerly unusual with their capabilities, and offers a cutting-edge account in their chemistry, manufacture, software and felony prestige for more matured foodstuff technologists. every one bankruptcy considers one of many major chemical teams of foodstuff emulsifiers. inside each one workforce the constructions of the emulsifiers are thought of, including their modes of motion. this can be by means of a dialogue in their creation / extraction and actual features, including sensible examples in their program. Appendices cross-reference emulsifier forms with functions, and provides E-numbers, overseas names, synonyms and references to analytical criteria and methods.


This is a publication for meals scientists and technologists, elements providers and caliber coverage personnel.

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1). This chapter, therefore, will provide a comprehensive overview of all aspects of commercial lecithins – their sources, composition and chemistry, analytical and quality considerations, types and functionalities, as well as key and potential applications. Emulsifiers in Food Technology, Second Edition. Edited by Viggo Norn. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1 Some history Lecithin was discovered in 1846 by the French chemist Maurice Gobley. He isolated an orange-coloured substance from egg yolk, which he called lecithin after the Greek name for egg yolk (‘lekithos’).

2 Animal lecithins Unlike the production of vegetable lecithins, there is no comparable industrial process step in the production of animal oils. Various methods are therefore used for producing lecithins of animal origin. The production of egg lecithin, the most important product in this category, usually comprises a combined extraction with ethanol and acetone. Due to these different processes, egg lecithins are more expensive in their production and are therefore not competitive with plant lecithins in technologically driven applications of the food industry.

The orogenic mechanism builds on studies done on highly hydrophilic emulsifiers present in the aqueous phase. It describes the process as singular small emulsifier molecules starting to penetrate the protein and then build up. However, most food emulsifiers have an affinity for both the water phase as well as the lipophilic phase, and they will be present in both phases. 2 Low molecular weight emulsifier (L) displacement of protein at the interphase of an oil droplet. bodies in the respective phases.

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