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Examples of intensive properties are temperature and pressure. Some intensive properties are ratios of two extensive properties. 7). The mass density of a substance is independent of the size of the sample because doubling the volume also doubles the mass, so the ratio of mass to volume remains the same. The mass density is therefore an intensive property. A molar quantity is the value of a property of a sample divided by the amount of substance in a sample (the ‘molar concentration’, described below, is an exception to this usage).
10 An extensive property is a property that depends on the amount of substance in the sample. An intensive property is a property that is independent of the amount of substance in the sample. 11 12 INTRODUCTION Table of key equations The following table summarizes the equations that have been developed in this chapter. 1 Explain the differences between gases, liquids, and solids. 2 Define the terms: force, work, energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy. 3 Distinguish between mechanical and thermal equilibrium.
1 The volume of a gas decreases as the pressure on it is increased. For a sample that obeys Boyle’s law and that is kept at constant temperature, the graph showing the dependence is a hyperbola, as shown here. Each curve corresponds to a single temperature, and hence is an isotherm. The isotherms are hyperbolas, graphs of xy = constant, or y = constant/x (see Appendix 2). Fig. 3 This diagram illustrates the content and implications of Charles’s law, which asserts that the volume occupied by a gas (at constant pressure) varies linearly with the temperature.