By Carl A. Hanson
"Economy and Society in Baroque Portugal, 1668 1703 " was once first released in 1981. Minnesota Archive variations makes use of electronic expertise to make long-unavailable books once more available, and are released unaltered from the unique college of Minnesota Press editions.The overdue 17th century in Portugal was once a interval of obvious calm, and few historians have given it a lot consciousness. Portugal's Golden Age of globally enlargement had made sixteenth-century Lisbon a very good advertisement heart, yet different eu international locations with extra complex economies handed Portugal's fulfillment, and through the 17th century agricultural, financial, and political difficulties all contributed to Portugal's decline. In 1668, on the end of a protracted battle with Spain to revive Portuguese sovereignty, Pedro II begun a reign of 38 years, first as regent for a feckless brother advert after 1683 as king. The heritage of Portugal in the course of his reign is the topic of this book.Carl A. Hanson seems to be at this quite unexamined period and unearths, in the back of the facade of baroque calm, sophisticated yet dramatic shifts within the socio-economic foundations of the age. that allows you to take care of financial melancholy Pedro's executive hearkened to enthusiastic experiences of Colbert's mercantile regulations in France, and attempted to inspire the growth of family production. associated with those efforts have been makes an attempt to scale down the inquisitorial persecution of recent Christian retailers. Hanson explores the factors of anti-Semitism, greed and sophistication conflict that underlay the persecution and describes the efforts of an eloquent Jesuit, Father Antonio Vieira, to guard the hot Christians from the worst excesses of the Inquisition.The triumph of the Inquisition, and therefore of the validated social order, and the failure of Portugal's test in mercantilism coincided with a brand new wave of commodity-borne prosperity. After 1690, elevated exports of Brazilian gold, tobacco, hides, and sugar, and of Port wine replaced Portugal's fiscal prestige. With the signing of the Anglo- Portuguese treaty of Methuen in 1703, Portugal entered a gilded if now not golden age. but, as Hanson makes transparent, the hot prosperity was once misleading, for Portugal was once to slide into more and more based relationships with the extra complicated economies specially England's which absorbed nice amounts of Luso-Atlantic commodities in trade for its personal manufactures. And, at domestic, the successful social order, now not threatened through a mercantile type, was once to discover defense below an more and more absolutist executive. The reign of Pedro II is important, then, as a interval of transition while, for the 1st time, the principles of the outdated order have been threatened. The baroque facade survived however the edifice itself had started to crumble."
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Extra resources for Economy and Society in Baroque Portugal, 1668–1703
Although the subject awaits systematic study, it is probable that the Portuguese bourgeoisie, like the Castilian, transformed itself, in part at least, into a rentier dass by buying up censos from financially pinched nobles and the peasants. "To the constant untiring pursuit of censos," wrote one authority, all sections of the [Castilian] bourgeoisie-Iawyers, office-holders, dergy, merchants-diverted their capital. Money was diverted from productive enterprises because they were too risky and put into censos and juros because they brought a steady return.
By the end of the sixteenth century, the nobility had become differentiated into four functional categories: nobles of the robe, the provincial nobility, court and administrative nobility, and nobles of the sword. 26 These groupings were not hard and fast. Nobles of the robe, for example, also acted as court bureaucrats. Moving from one functional category to another was not a difficult process. If, for instance, a provincial nobleman aspired to an important post in the royal bureaucracy, his provincial background did not in itself present a sig- 22 PRIVILEGE AND PROPERTY nificant obstacle.
Pedro II and D. Joäo V, members of that order held a near monopoly on the position of spiritual adviser to the king. 80 The continuity of Jesuit influence at the highest levels was largely assured by their control of the universities at Coimbra and Evora, which gave them a virtual monopoly on higher education in Portugal. Whether students chose to study theology, philosophy, law, or medicine, Jesuits usually oversaw their instruction. The increasingly outmoded scholastic curricula offered at these (and other) Jesuit institutions was not to be revamped until the enlightened administration of Pombal, late in the eighteenth century.