By Eileen Wallis
The half-century among 1880 and 1930 observed rampant progress in lots of American towns and an both quick move of girls into the workforce. In l. a., town not just grew from a dusty cow city to a big American city but additionally provided its citizens myriad new possibilities and demanding situations. "Earning strength" examines the position that ladies performed during this progress as they tried to make their monetary means in a swiftly altering global. la in the course of those years was once probably the most ethnically diversified and gender-balanced American towns. furthermore, its sped up city progress generated loads of financial, social, and political instability. In "Earning Power", writer Eileen V. Wallis examines how girls negotiated problems with gender, race, ethnicity, and sophistication to realize entry to professions and expert paintings in la. She additionally discusses the contributions they made to the region's heritage as political and social avid gamers, employers and staff, and as individuals of households. Wallis finds how the lives of ladies within the city West differed in lots of methods from these in their sisters in additional verified jap towns. She unearths that the reports of girls employees strength us to re-examine many assumptions in regards to the nature of la' financial system, in addition to concerning the methods ladies participated in it. The e-book additionally considers how Angelenos replied to the bigger nationwide social debate approximately women's paintings and the ways in which American society must swap to be able to accommodate operating girls. "Earning strength" is an immense contribution to our figuring out of work within the city West in this transformative interval and of the the most important position that girls performed in shaping western towns, economies, society, and politics.
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Additional info for Earning Power: Women and Work in Los Angeles, 1880-1930
Spanish made easy? In nearby Pomona, Manuela Ornelas also struggled to reconcile her need to make a living with the cultural expectations placed upon her as a Mexican American. Ornelas was the daughter of a grocer, and like the de Lopez sisters, she attended the Los Angeles Normal School. Ethnic discrimination may also have been a contributing factor in the relative dearth of Mexican American teachers in this period. Outside of the public schools, many employers would not hire Mexican American or Mexican immigrant women for white-collar jobs.
Another study suggests that because of the expense involved in migrating to Los Angeles, European immigrants may have been more affluent and less “foreign” than the majority of immigrants in East Coast cities. They thus may have entered into the professional ranks more easily than their poorer countrymen and women elsewhere. The single largest category of white-collar work for women in Los Angeles was teaching. Its new residents stressed the importance of expanding AngloAmerican culture in the area, and therefore schools took on particular importance in the community.
Both Maria and Ernestina completed high school and then graduated from the Los Angeles Normal School. Maria went on to the University of California. When their father died in 1904 the two women returned home to San Gabriel to live with their mother. Of the two sisters, Maria de Lopez eventually carved out the more distinguished career. In 1902 she became the youngest instructor at the University of California, she was a Spanish-language translator for the suffrage movement during the 1911 state- 26 EARNING POWER wide campaign, and eventually she taught at the University of California at Los Angeles (ucla), making her possibly the first Latina ever to do so.