By Emily Chamlee-Wright
Chalmlee-Wright argues that overseas relief programmes have usually been unsuccessful simply because they're imported. The economics of the Austrian university offer a much greater theoretical framework which may introduce cultural research into questions of monetary improvement and different industry procedures.
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Extra info for Cultural Foundations of Economic Development: Urban Female Entrepreneurship in Ghana (Foundations of the Market Economy)
How are the groups organized and by whom? ” (Frankenberg 1967, quoted in Clammer 1978:7). The concept of “class relations” took the place of any cultural theory. The attempt to overthrow kinship as a key component within economic anthropological analysis was only one celebrated example. Within the Marxist paradigm, the mode of production drives and takes precedence over social relations, custom, kinship, religion, ideology—all of which were central to cultural analysis. What ground cultural theory had lost in the formalist-substantivist debate in the 1960s was reinforced by the resurgence of Marxian economic anthropology in the 1970s.
But an equally strong ethic such as “respect the fruits of your neighbors’ labor as their own” is just as necessary for the private property setting. These ethics are part of the cultural framework which gives rise to and supports effective rules of property. Without this framework, rules of property—private or otherwise—have no source of legitimation and are therefore not sustainable. Stein (1995), for example, argues that socialist policies in parts of Eastern Europe and Africa have eroded the cultural sources of legitimation for private property, explaining the often disappointing results of privatization efforts.
The point is not that values are at work in one situation and not the other, but rather, that different value systems are at work in each. A strongly held ethic of “earn respect and honor through sharing” may work to ration resources in a setting of communal rights. But an equally strong ethic such as “respect the fruits of your neighbors’ labor as their own” is just as necessary for the private property setting. These ethics are part of the cultural framework which gives rise to and supports effective rules of property.