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By Christopher P. I. Mahonge

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Extra resources for Co-managing Complex Social-ecological Systems in Tanzania: The Case of Lake Jipe Wetland (Environmental Policy)

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Ethnicity can contribute to the success or failure of a co-management system. Some scholars emphasise that in a situation in which homogenous ethnicity exists there is a greater chance of attaining successful co-management than for heterogeneous ethnicity (Jodha, 1996; Lim, Yoshiaki, & Yukio, 1995; Pinkerton, 1987). Kideghesho and Mtoni (2008) reveal that heterogeneous ethnicity results in the delayed development of co-management institutional arrangements. In their research, these authors found that the presence of many ethnic groups within a particular social-ecological environment results in dilution effects for the culture, leading to a lack of social cohesion; they also discovered that one strong traditional institution is required for building an operational local organisational setting as a preparatory phase for co-management.

Natural resource management systems are made up of various institutions that govern and mediate the practices of actors that occur within some arrangements, and therefore, an analysis of co-management at Lake Jipe cannot omit them. While these concepts regularly emerge in co-management literature, they are often confused with one another. In this thesis, however, these concepts are used for analysing co-management arrangements, and through this analysis a clear definition of these concepts will be presented.

One such attribute might be the existence of a legal mechanism. Pomeroy et al. (2001) assert that the existence of property rights alone is not sufficient to enforce the sustainable use of natural resources. Whereas property rights should clearly provide for mechanisms (administrative, economic, and collective) and structures for the allocation of property rights to optimise their use while conserving resources, there should also be a legal mechanism for enforcing rights (Pomeroy, 1995; Pomeroy & Berkes, 1997).

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