By Teresa P. R. Caldeira
Teresa Caldeira's pioneering examine of worry, crime, and segregation in S?o Paulo poses crucial questions on citizenship and concrete swap in modern democratic societies. targeting S?o Paulo, and utilizing comparative information on la, she identifies new styles of segregation constructing in those towns and means that those styles are showing in lots of metropolises.
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Extra info for City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in São Paulo
In 1990 the poor constituted 17 percent of the population of the state (the second lowest proportion in the country; PNUD-IPEA 1996:182). 25 In the state of Sao Paulo, the richest 1 percent holds 13. 26 Some groups, like women and people of color, are more adversely affected by poverty than others. 6 percent of the active economic population, according to the PNAD. They worked mostly in the service sector (around 70 percent), and their average income was only 55·3 percent that of men. Although women are slightly more educated than men, their incomes are consistently lower than men's in all occupational categories and at all educational levels (PNAD 96).
For the individual, social decline was increasingly the reality. This trend occurred among all social groups, but it was obviously expressed in different ways and associated with different hardships according to social class. Just before Christmas 1990, I interviewed three brothers in Jardim das Camelias whom I have known since 1978, when they were boys. $2}0; his brother (B) was sixteen and was an unskilled worker in a textile factory, making Cr$18,ooo. The third brother, (C), was nineteen and looking for a job: he had just returned from Bahia, where the family had moved a couple of years ago.
The brothers' description of the country's economic situation was bleak: "Nobody has money, employers are all ending in bankruptcy, they are firing employees; the Plano Collor screwed a lot of people," said the eldest brother. Although ~wo of them were still employed, they did not expect to keep their jobs for long. One was sure to be fired before the end of the Christmas season. Especially compelling and sad were their reports on try- Crisis and Criminals The Talk of Crime ing to find work (despite their youth, all of them had tried many jobs already), their long hours of work and commuting, their attempts to lower their expectations, and the continuous frustrations of their hopes.