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By Deborah Stevenson

*What is exact approximately city life?*What key tendencies have formed the modern city?*How have town and concrete cultures been defined through sociology and cultural studies?This is the 1st e-book to discover towns and concrete existence from the views of either sociology and cultural conception. via an interdisciplinary method and use of case fabric, the e-book demonstrates that the 'real' urban of physicality and fight and the 'imagined' urban of representations are entwined within the development of city cultures.Starting with a comparability of the agricultural and the city, the publication considers methods of imagining the town and of conceptualising city cultures. It is going directly to examine the consequences of a number of pivotal city and cultural developments, resembling using the humanities and native cultures in urban re-imaging, and the ways that modernism, postmodernism and globalisation have formed the equipped setting and the orientation of educational enquiry. additionally tested is the way representations of the city panorama in movie, literature, paintings, and well known texts, have trained dominant principles in regards to the means convinced urban areas - together with urban centres, city waterfronts, and so-called 'global towns' - may still glance, functionality and 'feel'.Designed as a textual content for undergraduate classes in cultural reviews, sociology and wider social technological know-how, this publication lines the advance of city environments from the 19th century to the current, and illuminates the character of city lifestyles.

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The abandoned area then becomes a ‘transitional zone’ and its physical environment soon falls into disrepair. Before long, drug dealers, 27 28 C I T I E S A N D U R B A N C U LT U R E S alcoholics, the homeless and other heterogeneous ‘deviant’ populations move into the transition zone. Ultimately, though, as ‘invasion’ gives way to ‘succession’, the transition area is rezoned from residential to business – and then the process will begin all over again. The Chicago School scholars argued that this process of competition, dominance, invasion and succession is played out in predictable ways in cities across the United States.

In many respects, the general theories of the early social thinkers, in different ways, informed almost all the urban research conducted within the discipline of sociology throughout the twentieth century (Saunders 1981). Significantly, too, many foundational sociological ideas about the city and urbanism were formed in opposition to ideas about the country. Urban analyses, although grounded in empirical observation, were pervaded by a keen awareness of what had supposedly been lost, destroyed or surpassed by urbanization – these were the positive communal relationships and quality of life believed to exist in the country.

19 20 C I T I E S A N D U R B A N C U LT U R E S These ways of seeing and explaining urban life were outcomes of a coincidence of many factors but, in particular, the visual, the literary, the lived and the imagined were influential (see Chapter 7). Such discrete factors combined to describe the urban way of life largely in terms of its opposition to a romanticized rural existence. The rural became ‘the natural’, the wholesome and the safe – the ideal against which all other forms of settlement were judged.

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