By Gonul Kaletunc, Kenneth J. Breslauer
"Characterization of Cereals and Flours" is a state of the art reference that information the most recent advances to symbolize the consequences of producing approaches and garage stipulations at the thermal, mechanical, and structural houses of cereal flours and their items - analyzing the impact of moisture absorption, garage temperature, baking, and extrusion processing on flour and cereal product texture, shelf-life, and caliber. The publication discusses the effect of additions on pre- and publish processed nutrients biopolymers; the advance of databases and development of kingdom diagrams to demonstrate the country and serve as of cereal flours earlier than, in the course of, and after creation; and the present strategies in picture research, gentle and electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy used to investigate the microstructure of cereal items. It additionally discusses the equipment used to optimize processing parameters and formulations to supply end-products with fascinating sensory and textural houses; the shelf lifetime of cereal items; and the relationships among the sensory and actual features of cereal meals.
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Additional resources for Characterization of Cereals and Flours (Food Science and Technology)
The relationship between Tg and crispness may provide a criterion for adjusting extruder operating conditions to produce extrudates with optimal crispness. Thus, knowledge of Tg values corresponding to desirable levels of product crispness can be of value to a manufacturer. VI. CONCLUSION Calorimetry can be successfully applied to characterize the impact of processing and storage conditions on the stability and shelf life of extruded products. The observation that processing-induced fragmentation is reﬂected in both the apparent molecular weight distribution and the temperature of the glass transition emphasizes the utility of Tg as a means of assessing the extent of fragmentation in extruded cereal ﬂours.
Trends Polym Sci 1:248–253, 1993. Calorimetry of Pre- and Postextruded Cereal Flours 29 5. LN Bell, DE Touma. Glass transition temperatures determined using a temperaturecycling differential scanning calorimeter. J Food Sci 61:807–810, 828, 1996. 6. VL Hill, DQM Craig, LC Feely. Characterization of spray-dried lactose using modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Int J Pharm 161:95–107, 1998. 7. PG Royall, DQM Craig, C Doherty. Characterization of the glass transition of an amorphous drug using modulated DSC.
The degree of starch conversion (DC) is described by the reduction in the area of the gelatinization endotherm before and after extrusion (56, 57): DC(%) ϭ ∆H 0 Ϫ ∆H i ϫ 100 ∆H 0 (8) where ∆H 0 is the enthalpy of gelatinization of the native starch and ∆H i is the enthalpy of gelatinization of the extruded starch. Starch conversion is sometimes used synonymously with degree of gelatinization (58). It should be remembered that the application of mechanical energy during extrusion results in structural changes to starch, including granule disruption and fragmentation of starch molecules into smaller-size polymers.