By Elizabeth J. Reitz, Lee A. Newsom, Sylvia J. Scudder
The function of Case reviews in Environmental Archaeology is to spotlight reviews addressing major anthropological matters within the Americas from the viewpoint of environmental archaeology. Environmental archaeology encompasses the applying of organic and geological strategies to the examine of human/environmental interactions. each one bankruptcy is an unique or revised paintings by means of internationally-recognized geoarchaeologists, human biologists, paleoethnobotanists, and zooarchaeologists. each one examine demonstrates how and why the data got utilizing environmental suggestions is necessary to anthropologists rather than describing, critiquing, or advocating a style. those ethnographic, geological, and organic case stories effectively display the appliance of environmental technological know-how towards the answer of questions relating to human habit within the past.
This moment variation is predicated at the 1996 publication of an identical identify. The editors have invited again a few members from the 1st variation to revise and replace their bankruptcy. additionally they have incorporated new reviews with a view to hide fresh advancements within the box or extra pertinent themes. it is usually a separate index directory the clinical and vernacular names of vegetation and animals referenced within the volume.
These case experiences current examples from websites in North the US, the Caribbean, and South the United States. the various key themes addressed during this distinct quantity include:
Systemic relationships among humans and the actual environments and paleoenvironments within which they live
Relationships between landscapes, source use, residential styles, and political alliances
Issues regarding human meals, health and wellbeing, mobility, sedentism, plant and animal domestication, vitamin, and trade
Subsistence techniques and source availability
Intra-community social kin, rural/urban relationships, ethnic identification, and the advance of social complexity
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Additional info for Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology
DEAGAN studies suggest that European colonists in America, when possible, attempted to retain the familiar traditional food elements of their homelands. All, however, found it necessary to make changes to varying degrees, depending on the suitability of the local environment for preferred plants and animals. Moreover, zooarchaeological analyses in English colonial sites suggest that adjustments to local resources coalesced into distinct regional Anglo-American cuisine patterns within less than a century after initial colonization (Cheek 1999).
Efforts to understand African-American diet, food procurement strategies and other uses of the environment under conditions of slavery reveal an active and conscious use of animals and plants from Europe, America, and sometimes Africa, and their recombination into a distinctly African-American, creole subsistence pattern (Armstrong 1989:273–276; Crader 1984; McKee 1999; Otto 1984; Reitz et al. 1985). Environmental archaeologists have consistently found that slaves supplemented rations of European plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering and cultivating plants of Native American, Eurasian, and African origin (Reitz 1986a, 1994).
Scudder, S. , 2003, Sea Level Rise or Shallow-water Midden Deposition? Archaeopedology at the Seminole Rest Archaeological Site, Coastal East-Central Florida, Journal of Archaeological Science 30:1551–1557. , 1981, Environmental Archaeology, George Allen & Unwin, London, England. Smart, T. , and Hoffman, E. , 1988, Environmental Interpretations of Archaeological Charcoal, in: Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical Methods and Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Plant Remains (C. A. Hastorf and V.