By Evan S. Lieberman
Why have governments replied to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in such other ways? prior to now area century, overseas organisations and donors have disseminated monstrous assets and a suite of most sensible perform ideas to policymakers worldwide. but the governments of constructing international locations in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin the United States, and the Caribbean proceed to enforce largely various guidelines. obstacles of Contagion is the 1st systematic, comparative research of the politics of HIV/AIDS. The booklet explores the political demanding situations of responding to a stigmatized situation, and identifies ethnic boundaries--the formal and casual associations that divide societies--as a valuable impression on politics and policymaking. Evan Lieberman examines the ways that probability and social pageant get mapped onto well-institutionalized styles of ethnic politics. the place powerful ethnic limitations fragment societies into teams, the politics of AIDS usually tend to contain blame and shame-avoidance strategies opposed to segments of the inhabitants. In flip, govt leaders of such international locations reply some distance much less aggressively to the epidemic. Lieberman's case reviews of Brazil, South Africa, and India--three constructing international locations that face major AIDS epidemics--are complemented via statistical analyses of the coverage responses of Indian states and over seventy constructing nations. The reviews finish that different styles of ethnic festival form how governments reply to this devastating challenge. the writer considers the results for governments and donors, and the expanding tendency to spot social difficulties in ethnic phrases.
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Additional resources for Boundaries of Contagion: How Ethnic Politics Have Shaped Government Responses to AIDS
54 Moreover, as levels of fragmentation increase, it becomes increasingly plausible for members of any single ethnic group to imagine the problem as belonging to some other group from which they are insulated. Fragmentation increases the number of distinctions that can be made bet\Veen groups that are at risk and those that are not. 1). It is not necessarily the case that groups will explicitly organize as ethnic groups to advocate or challenge the government's allocation of resources for AIDS (though they may sometimes do so).
Policies are spread not by norms but by material incentives. 4. Learning theories propose that policymakers change their strategies in the wake of evidence on the effects of a policy from their own experiences with it, or the experiences of other countries. There is a degree of overlap in the implications of each paradigm. Moreover, as scholars have found for other issues, there are often multiple sources of diffusion. Nonetheless, these are distinctive theories of the global spread of particular policies and practices.
Testing 46 Barnett and Whiteside 2002 and UNAIDS 2005 both make references to the importance of "unity" and "social cohesion" in addressing the pandemic, and the latter highlights the negative effects of ethnic divisions. amine such intuitions. 47 1 am grateful to an anonymous reviewer of the manuscript at Princeton University Press for suggesting the idea of "divisible" or "selective" bads. 48 Gilmore and Somerville 1994; Aggleton, Parker, and Maluwa 2003. 49 Brewer 1999 identifies notions of "moral superiority," "perceived threat," "common goals," "common values and social comparison," and "power politics" as factors that may contribute to ingroup love and outgroup hate.