Download Biology of the Leaf Miners by Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.) PDF

By Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.)

The improvement of specialized feeding conduct through the process time via humans is paralleled within the majority of animals, specifically have constructed particular peculiarities, and bug larvae which as a rule are relatively attribute of the species involved. this is applicable particularly to phytophagous insect larvae, and a person with the needful adventure can say with a good measure of sure bet which insect larva is chargeable for any harm to be came upon on a plant. It leaves in the back of a distinct "feeding development" that can be in comparison to a "visiting card" on which the genus and species are marked in runic characters. Whoever has realized to learn the runes can without difficulty ascertain who has been feeding at the affected spot, completely at the uncomplicated of the "visiting card" left at the back of. From the recognized elements - the identify of the plant and the kind of feeding patter- and after a few examine of a few of the forms of plant infestation, either the genus and species of the larva generating the feeding development should be labored out easily. the significance of "feeding development research" has now a ways outstripped the successes to be acquired by means of common accumulating. formerly, whilst wishing to checklist the species of bugs found in any given locality they have been stuck with the internet, by way of sugaring and different tools. This regularly ended in a truly faulty "list" of the bugs actually present within the locality concerned.

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Species with a prognathous head formation, such as Phyllocnistis, can never change their mines; the caterpillar removed from its mine always dies. The same thing applies to Eriocraniidae, Nepticulidae, and Heliozelidae. In many of the Gracilariidae no change is possible while the larva continues to be a sap-feeder; later however, it may change mine and leaf several times, when it has been transformed into a tissue feeder. The least difficulties in changing mines are encountered by members of Gelechiidae and Tortricidae.

27. Fig. 28. Fig. 29. view. Caterpillar of Acrolepia (Lepidoptera) Highly modified caterpillar (Phyllocnistis) Pupa of Lepidoptera (Phyllocnistis) a) Lateral view b) Ventral racic shield or plate. Their shape and colour is often important for purposes of identification, especially with Elachista. On each of the first three (thoracic) segments behind the head the larva possesses a pair of jointed legs and also several pairs of abdominal feet (prolegs), usually on segments 6 to 9 and also on the terminal segment (Fig.

In the Apteropeda changing mines seems to be the rule; many mines can frequently be found among the members of this genus, feeding on Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae and Plantaginaceae, which were apparently abandoned without any compelling reason and the new channels formed by the larva can be found not far away. It is necessary to make special mention of the species which change their mine and also often their leaf when they reach the end of their larval stage. Many of them but not all have changed mines already a number of times before.

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