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By Maria Todorova

Balkan Identities brings jointly historians, anthropologists, and literary students all operating lower than the shared conviction that the one strategy to triumph over historical past is to in detail know it. The participants of Balkan Identities concentrate on old reminiscence, collective nationwide reminiscence, and the political manipulation of nationwide identities. They refine our knowing of reminiscence and identification commonly and discover and check the importance of specific manifestations of Balkan nationwide identities and nationwide thoughts within the region.

The essays in Balkan Identities grapple with 3 significant difficulties: the development of historic reminiscence, websites of nationwide reminiscence, and the mobilization of nationwide identities. whereas so much essays specialize in a unmarried kingdom (e.g. Croatia, Romania, Turkey, Cyprus, Albania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia), they're in discussion with one another and percentage an competition to inflexible isolationist identities.

Illuminating and demanding, Balkan Identities demonstrates the ever-changing nature of a stricken and culturally brilliant region.

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S. activities to root out terrorism and the Taliban in Afghanistan. Cooperation for Iran was also advantageous, however, in that Iran was helping the United States to rid it of one of its main competitors in the region. S. 5. Both the state support of terrorism and the nuclear program are treated at greater length in later chapters of this book. A good summary of this appeared in an article in International Affairs by David Dunn in 2007: This represented a lost opportunity for the United States.

The Velayat-e Faghih has many duties and unlimited authority. It selects six religious jurists to serve on the Guardian Council, with the other six being constitutional experts appointed by the Majlis (Parliament). The Guardian Council vets laws passed by the Majlis, confirms the constitutionality of all legislation, appoints heads to the Judiciary and Armed Forces, and selects members of the Expediency Council, the Supreme Council and the Council of Defense. The Velayat-e Faghih endorses the appointment of the president, who is technically popularly elected.

As it was said by Nasser Hadian, a political scientist at Tehran University, “we all thought that using of the chemical weapons would be a red line which never would be crossed. We thought the international community never would let happen. ”37 Meanwhile, the United States and other countries applied significant economic sanctions against both of the combatants in attempts to bring the conflict to an end. However, even these were applied unevenly. S. Political History 27 More direct superpower involvement in the Iran-Iraq War did not come until 1986.

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