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Carlsberg, Ser. chim. 27, 333 (1951). 68. P. Dubois, Compt. rend. 194, 1162 (1932). 69. L. Jensovsky, Chem. listy 47, 334 ( 1953). 70. K. Engelthaler, Chem. listy 48, 1572 ( 1954 ). 71. Adapted from G. W. Ewing, /. Chem. Educ. 33, 424 ( 1956). 72. C. O. Anderson and E. Stenbagen, Acta Chem. Scand. 10, 1317 ( 1956). CHAPTER III Automatic Potentiometric Titrators Nearly all the early efforts to construct practical automatic titrators were based on the potentiometric method of end point detection, and this remains the most widely used method today.

The time constant will be in seconds if R and C are expressed in megohm and microfarad units 3. 37 TITRATION CURVES respectively. Values of the order of one second or less are usually considered a reasonable compromise of sensitivity and lag for a differentiating network. With the aid of amplifiers between successive differentiating stages it has been found possible to construct not only automatic first derivative titrators using R-C differentiation but higher derivative instruments as well. —i E RS i î o ' Ü dt \ o B FIG.

2. The conductometric graph, in which the electrical property is one linear function of the titrant volume up to the end point and another after it. 3. The derivative graphs, in which the first, second, or even higher derivatives of the electrical property with respect to time or volume are plotted against volume. 4. A miscellaneous class that for lack of a better name must be simply described as irregular. The one essential characteristic of all titration curves if the end point is to be obtained automatically, is a significant change of slope at or very near the end point.

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