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By Michael L. Galaty

This quantity presents a theoretical foundation for knowing the categorical results of totalitarian dictatorship upon the perform of archaeology, either in the course of and after the dictator's reign. The 9 essays discover studies from each nook of the Mediterranean. With its wide-range of case-studies and powerful theoretical orientation, this quantity is a tremendous develop within the research of the heritage and politics of archaeology.

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And later kingship of Achmet Bey Zogu, recorded his impressions of Albania as a Balkan Ruritania: "Tirana in 1930 was an untidy place, though the Albanians were making great efforts to transform it from a quaint Turkish town into a capital that looked like modern. Anything that looked Albanian the Tirana people would not have; they were proud of the great double-barrelled 'Boulevard Mussolini' which seemed to rush resolutely and dustily toward the distant military school between scattered derelicts of the old and the skeletons of the new" (Swire, 1937:193).

23). The opposite reaction occurred when Italian newspapers made so much of the evidence for imperial Rome from Jacopi's discoveries at Aphrodisias in Turkey in 1937 that the Turks refused to renew the permit (Petricioli, 1990:354-357). In regard to missions in the "Levant," Mussolini wrote in the margin of a note of 4 September 1933 "Do not ask for new funds" (Petricioli, 1990:306). The lack of secure funding and the absence of Anti's constant political influence became painfully apparent in the 1934 season.

In the field of archaeology this search for myths and origins was molded into a logical extension of Romanita. Boni, for instance, was commissioned to research the origins and true form of the fasces to be adopted as the emblem of the new state (Falasca Zamponi, 1997:96; Gentile, 1996:43). The idealizing theories of Benedetto Croce became influential, however ironically (Croce came to oppose Mussolini's regime). These reacted against the positivist ideas being explored in the later 19th century, as archaeology became a national concern (Barbanera, 2000: 124^126; Guidi, 1996:108-112).

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