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By Oscar White Muscarella

'Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the traditional close to East' follows the evolution of the author’s scholarly paintings and pursuits and is split into a number of different types of interrelated fields. the 1st half bargains essentially with excavations and linked artifacts, matters in old geography and the identity of historic websites in northwest Iran, the author’s study concerning the tradition and chronology of the Phrygian capital at Gordion in Anatolia, and the chronology and Iranian cultural relatives of a domain within the Emirate of Sharjah. half is wide-ranging and contains chapters on Aegean and old close to japanese cultural and political interconnections, the function of fibulae in revealing cultural and chronological concerns, and the gender-determined utilization of parasols and their popularity in excavated contexts. There also are articles in particular excited by “Plunder tradition” and the forgery of either items and their alleged proveniences.

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16 This technique is the same as that employed in Tumulus I, and, as already discussed, in tumuli from Ankara and Cyprus. Tumuli in the Altai area do not present direct parallels with those at Sé Girdan in that many are actually rock cairns rather than earth tumuli. 18 These stones, however, form a simple ring and not a revetment, and as such may be more closely related to European tumuli. I am told that some of the tumuli ruthlessly plundered in the Ardebil area in recent years have an outer ring of stones like those in the Caucasus.

Tumulus III Tumulus III was selected for excavation because it represents a mediumsized example, being 3 meters in height and about 35 meters in preserved diameter (Figure 17). Whereas Tumuli I and II were apparently never cultivated, Tumulus III had been plowed and therefore blended into the surrounding pea field. After the tumulus was divided into quadrants, the 26 chapter one Figure 17. Plan of Tumulus III. Figure 18. East-west section of the southeast quadrant, Turnulus III. the tumuli at sé girdan: a preliminary report 27 southeast section was decided upon for initial excavation.

Schede in AA 1930, cols. , fig. 23; M. Forrer in Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient Gesellschaft 65 (1927) abb. 20 with caption. 36 chapter one tombs are usually constructed of wood, but this may only reflect ecological differences between Anatolia and western Iran. 13 In some tumuli there is also a pile of rubble stones placed over the tomb. While there is no evidence of a stone rubble revetment in the tumuli at Sardis, the elaborate stone wall found in the large tumulus called Karniyarik Tepe may actually be related in some manner to the type known at Sé Girdan.

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