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By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles

Humans as a rule imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that help those mental interpretations. this is often the 1st publication to judge the importance and value of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for knowing animals. different views are awarded in considerate, serious essays via historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and ancient attitudes towards them are awarded; and medical attitudes are appraised. Authors offer interesting in-depth descriptions and analyses of various species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canines, sea lions, and, in fact, people. issues approximately, and recommendations for, reviews of quite a few mental features of animals are mentioned, together with psychological country attribution, intentionality, cognition, realization, self-consciousness, and language.

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Why that is so will be addressed below. , Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), the metaphorical use of terms or concepts must presuppose the literal use or meaning. Decisions are made, therefore, consciously or unconsciously by the scientist, about the appropriateness of terms that are normally used to describe human behavior (the literal meaning) when applied to animal behavior (and claimed to be metaphorical). Thus, however pervasive metaphor is held to be in either ordinary or scientific discourse, the speaker's beliefs about wherein lies the difference between human and nonhu- < previous page page_23 If you like this book, buy it!

The term anthropomorphism presupposes reference to uniquely human qualities. However, notions about wherein the differences between humans and other species lie, or what are considered to be the most important differences, vary both historically and among cultures. Thus, we cannot assume that anthropomorphism carries exactly the same connotations at all times or for all scientists. Further, to what, exactly, anthropomorphism refers is unclear. Fisher (1991) has pointed out the logical fallacies in our attributions of anthropomorphism as both a term and a concept.

Darwin, 1871/1981, p. 67) And a dog who loves his master, even more than a monkey who loves his keeper (judging by Darwin's emphasis), shows the closest equivalent in the animal world to that most complex of emotions, religious devotion (Darwin, 1871/1981, p. 68). " (Darwin, 1871/1981, p. 76). "What a strong feeling of inward satisfaction must impel a bird, so full of activity, to brood day after day over her eggs" (p. 79). Again, however, dogs seem to be especially singled out for something a shade superior: Besides love and sympathy, animals exhibit other qualities which in us would be called moral; and I agree with Agassiz that dogs possess something very like a conscience.

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