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Published by way of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine Series.

In a 1971 medical Committee on Antarctic learn record that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the next statement: "People who examine sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, they usually solution 'why hassle, it is the standard stuff." Noting this was once "fortunately real to a substantial extent," they extra "It is obvious that destiny paintings will rely seriously at the logistics amenities on hand to permit floor observations past the quick ice area in any respect seasons of the 12 months. of virtually equivalent significance may be the improvement of tools and recording gear suited to use within the polar setting" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited by way of G. Deacon, medical Committee on Antarctic study, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).

Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor grew to become operational in December 1972. below a yr later the large Weddell Polynya used to be saw for the 1st time. maybe greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen characteristic illustrated the aptitude to enormously extend our wisdom of sea ice in the course of the program of spaceborne distant sensing. concurrently, it acted as a catalyst for an important elevate within the point of analysis.

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264 266 272 274 . ,. ... ,. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Snowdepth [cm] Plate 1. Identifiedmelt events(black)duringSeptember1989in the WeddellSeafor every other day. The Antarcticcontinentis gray. Areasof missingdata are indicatedin light MARKUS AND CAVALIERI- SNOW DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OVER SEA ICE 31 February January 5O April March •o 20 lO May Plate 2. Mean monthly snow depths for the months January through June tram the years 1988-1994. Labeled boxes indicate regions of cruisessummarized in Table 2.

GE-œO,452-467, 1982. , and H. Eicken, The sea ice thicknessdisTrans. Geosc. Rein. , GE-œd,378-382, 1986. tribution in the northwestern Weddell Sea, J. W. Lohanick, Temporal variaphys. , 96, 4821-4837, 1991. , Snow on seaice: Competing effectsin shaplate spring and early summer near Mould Bay NWT, ing climate, J. , 96, 17,195-17,208, 1991. J. Geophys. , 90, 5063-5074, 1985. C. Comiso, Multifrequency passive microwave observationsof first-year sea ice grown in a remote sensing, in Sea Ice Properties and Processes, tank, IEEE Trans.

Only a dedicated snow depth survey with the aim of obtaining represen- tative measurementsin the SSM/I resolutioncould provide sufficient information. In addition to snow depth, information on grain size, flooding, layering, and slush at the snow/ice interfacewould be very helpful. This is not an easy task becauseinformation other than snow depth cannot be obtained from a running ship. Nonetheless,thesedata would enable the investigation of errors on a pixel by pixel basis and would aid the study of usingadditional channels (forexamplethe use85 GHz data) to improvethe ac- curacy.

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