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By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Naval Studies Board, Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology

Committee for an review of Precision Time and Time period technological know-how and know-how, nationwide examine Council, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, Naval reports Board

Knowledge of time is vital to specific wisdom of place, and accordingly the army, with its have to navigate at the excessive seas, has traditionally performed an enormous position within the improvement and alertness of complex time consciousness and dissemination applied sciences. Discoveries coming from simple study funded by means of the workplace of Naval study (ONR) lie on the middle of brand new maximum functionality atomic clocks, Naval learn Laboratory (NRL) services performed a task in constructing the space-qualified atomic clocks that permit the worldwide Positioning approach (GPS), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) keeps and disseminates the normal of time for all the division of protection (DOD). The military has made significant investments in such a lot facets of precision time and time period (PTTI) technological know-how and know-how, even supposing particular PTTI-related examine has additionally been funded through the safeguard complicated learn tasks business enterprise (DARPA) and non-DOD enterprises comparable to the nationwide technology starting place (NSF), the nationwide Aeronautics and area management (NASA), and the dept of trade. army investment, mostly via ONR, has a historical past of being an early enabler of key new advancements. really apt investment judgements via the Navy-particularly by means of ONR software officers-have underpinned many of the significant advances in PTTI technological know-how and expertise (S&T) within the final 50 years.

PTTI is critical to fashionable naval wishes, and certainly to the entire armed companies, to be used in either navigation and communications. special time synchronization is required to successfully confirm the beginning of a code series in safe communications, to accomplish navigation, and to find the location of sign emitters. targeted frequency regulate is needed in communications for spectrum usage and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum thoughts. there are numerous examples of crucial army operations that rely on PTTI and will take advantage of advancements in PTTI expertise. those contain:

-GPS clocks and self sufficient operations,

-Weapon process 4-dimensional coordination,

-GPS antijamming,

-Network-centric struggle, and

-Secure army communications.

This file summarizes that rate reductions within the dimension, weight, and tool standards and raises within the ruggedness of PTTI units with no sacrificing functionality could placed extra actual and special timekeeping within the fingers of the warrior, bettering services in all the above operations.

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Extra resources for An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology

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Briefing to the committee on March 26, 2002. 26 AN ASSESSMENT OF PRECISION TIME AND TIME INTERVAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY the importance to the Navy and the entire DOD of supporting their development cannot be overestimated. There are numerous past and current examples of PTTI-related investigations producing capabilities of operational value to the military. 2 investment. This device produces frequency stabilities and accuracies rivaling oven-controlled crystal oscillators while requiring only a small fraction of the operating power, and it is finding use in applications as diverse as navigational buoys and GPS receivers.

The ranging error with the improved clocks is almost halved. These ranging accuracy improvements allow a proportional improvement in positioning and time outputs from a GPS receiver. Further improvements in stability and ruggedness of the atomic clocks flown on GPS satellites could do the following: • Improve the ranging accuracy, reducing collateral damage, enabling more accurate weapons delivery, and subsequently reducing the number of missions required to destroy a target set. • Allow longer GPS operations in the event of a ground upload outage.

Silicon microresonator arrays, although not temperature stable, show great promise for on-chip integration as (low-frequency) filters and sensors. Advances in this area have the potential to provide more compact radio frequency front ends (integrated circuit designs rather than discrete bulk devices) by reducing the size of the pre-down-conversion filters and duplexers in receivers and transceivers. S. , 1996. 36 AN ASSESSMENT OF PRECISION TIME AND TIME INTERVAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Microstructured Optical Fiber Heterodyned optical atomic clocks have been achieved by the development of microstructured optical fiber combined with advanced mode-locked lasers.

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