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By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson

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Additional resources for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)

Sample text

Chicks were farther from the hen in the increasing population, flew more readily, and flew farther when flushed. Artificial hen calls caused territorial males in all populations to alter their songs similarly, but males in the declining and stable populations advanced more quickly toward the sound. Cocks in all populations courted a dummy female similarly. However, when reacting to their mirror image, males in the increasing population showed fewer aggressive acts than did those in the other two populations.

H. MOSSOP of unsuccessful hens. Populations of red grouse (Watson 1965), willow ptarmigan (Mercer 1967, Bergerud 1970a), and rock ptarmigan (Theberge 1971) have also shown varying productivity that correlated with numerical change. 6 Summary This study tested the null hypothesis that (1) no differences in blue grouse social and aggressive behavior should be demonstrable between different populations, regardless of their demography, and (2) if differences exist, increasing populations should not be composed of individuals displaying less aggressive behaviors and intensities than stable or declining ones.

Interaction was the reaction to the cock's mirror image. The exploratory phase was quantified by determining the speed of advance of the male toward the arena, and by noting the alterations in his song. Virtually all males, regardless of population, increased the volume of hooting when the female call was played. Also, the frequency of complete songs increased. There was high variation in the rate of advance; cocks at CC advanced slowest, those at CB most rapidly, and those at MQL with intermediate speed (Fig.

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