Download Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov PDF

By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

hemistry is the technology approximately breaking and forming of bonds among atoms. essentially the most very important tactics for natural chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, in addition to C–C in quite a few compounds, and basically, in hydrocarbons. between hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane and so on. ), are particularly beautiful as substrates for chemical variations. for the reason that, at the one hand, alkanes are the most elements of oil and typical fuel, and therefore are the vital feedstocks for chemical undefined. nevertheless, those elements are recognized to be the fewer reactive natural compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons could be known as the “noble gases of natural chemistry” and, if this is the case, the 1st consultant in their kinfolk – methane – should be in comparison with tremendous inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel among noble gases and alkanes isn't really absolutely actual. certainly the variations of alkanes, together with methane, were identified for a very long time. those reactions contain the interplay with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the most resource of energy!), in addition to a few mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. besides the fact that, most of these modifications ensue at increased temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and are typically characterised through a scarcity of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water in the course of burning is a very precious approach – yet no longer from a chemist viewpoint.

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However, in the case of alkane, an alcohol can be formed by the reduction of alkyl peroxide, whereas hydroxyl is added to an arene with subsequent oxidation of a radical formed. Hence follows the possibility that arenes and alkanes may exhibit different reactivities in each specific reaction. 3. BRIEF HISTORY OF METAL-COMPLEX ACTIVATION OF C–H BONDS Although first metal-containing systems capable of reacting with hydrocarbons and other C–H compounds such as Fenton’s reagent (hydroxylation) and mercury salts (direct mercuration) were discovered as early as the end of nineteenth century, the 1930s should apparently be regarded as the start of investigations into activation of C–H compounds with participation of transition metal complexes.

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