Download 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline PDF

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified purely because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did lots of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving financial system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, unexpectedly ceased to exist, in addition to writing platforms, know-how, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have triggered such common breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the reasons of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip was once caused by way of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and riot to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign alternate routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and exhibits that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mix of narrative and the newest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the complicated ties that gave upward thrust to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age—and that set the degree for the emergence of classical Greece.

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Extra resources for 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed

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53 Moreover, as archaeologists began to excavate Hittite sites and eventually to translate the numerous clay tablets found at these sites, it became clear that they had not called themselves Hittites. Their name for themselves was actually something close to “Neshites” or “Neshians,” after the city of Nesha (now known and excavated as Kultepe Kanesh in the Cappadocian region of Turkey). This city flourished for some two hundred years as the seat of a local Indo-­European dynasty, before a king named Hattusili I (meaning “the man of Hattusa”) sometime around 1650 BC established his capital city farther to the east, at a new site with that name, Hattusa.

However, in order to understand the enormity of the events that took place around 1177 BC, we have to begin three centuries earlier. Hittite Assyrian Babylonian Mitanni Ugarit Other 18th Hammurabi Zimri-­Lim (Mari) 17th Hattusili I Mursili I 16th Seknenre Khyan (Hyksos) Kahmose Apophis (Hyksos) Ahmose I Thutmose I Thutmose II 15th Hatshepsut Tudhaliya I/II Saushtatar Kukkuli (Assuwa) Thutmose III 14th Amenhotep III Suppiluliuma I Adad-­nirari I Kurigalzu I Shuttarna II Ammistamru I Tarkhundaradu (Arzawa) Akhenaten Mursili II Assur-­uballit Kadashman-­Enlil I Tushratta Niqmaddu II Tutankhamen Burna-­Buriash II Shattiwaza Niqmepa Ay Kurigalzu II 13th Ramses II Mursili II (cont’d) Tukulti-­Ninurta I Kashtiliashu Niqmepa (cont’d) Shaushgamuwa (Amurru) Merneptah Muwattalli II Ammistamru II Hattusili III Niqmaddu III Tudhaliya IV Ammurapi Suppiluliuma II 12th Ramses III Suppiluliuma II Ammurapi Shutruk-­Nahhunte (Elam) (cont’d) (cont’d) Century Egyptian Table 1.

22 It is during Hatshepsut’s reign, in the fifteenth century BC, that the first of the tombs was built in which Aegean peoples are actually shown in wall paintings. In these tombs, we frequently see Minoans depicted, often with their goods and with inscriptions that identify them in unequivocal terms as coming from the island of Crete. 23 In another painting, within the tomb of Rekhmire, vizier to Thutmose III (ca. 1450 BC), we see men dressed in typical Aegean-­style kilts and carrying specifically Aegean objects.

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